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Material Deposition Chart




Key of Symbols

✝ Magnetic material (requires special sputter source)

‡ One run only

* Influenced by composition

** The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally
determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.

*** All metals alumina coated

C = carbon

Gr = graphite

Q = quartz

Incl = Inconel®

VitC = vitreous carbon

SS = stainless steel

Ex = excellent

G = good

F = fair

P = poor

S = sublimes

D = decomposes

PDC = Pulsed DC sputtering

RF = RF sputtering is effective

RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective

DC = DC sputtering is effective

DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


Initial letter of the deposition material.

A   B   C   D   E   G   H   I   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   Y   Z   ▲Back to Top

Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio 10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible Sputter Comments
Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation
Aluminum Al 660 - 2.7 1.08 677 821 1,010 Excellent Fabmate®, Intermetallic - - W TiB2-BN, BN DC Alloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum Antimonide AlSb 1,080 - 4.3 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Arsenide AlAs 1,600 - 3.7 - - - ~1,300 - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Bromide AlBr3 97 - 2.64 - - - ~50 - - Mo - - Gr - -
Aluminum Carbide Al4C3 ~1,400 D 2.36 - - - ~800 Fair - - - - - RF -
Aluminum Fluoride AlF3 1,291 S 2.88 - 410 490 700 Poor Graphite, Fabmate® Mo, W, Ta - - Gr RF -
Aluminum Nitride AlN >2,200 S 3.26 **1.00 - - ~1,750 Fair - - - - - RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 2,072 - 3.97 0.336 - - 1,550 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W - W - RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.
Aluminum Phosphide AlP 2,000 - 2.42 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Aluminum, 1% Copper Al/Cu 99/1 wt% 640 - 2.82 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% Silicon Al/Si 99/1 wt % 640 - 2.69 **1.00 - - 1,010 - - - - - TiB2-BN RF, DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony Sb 630 S 6.68 0.768 279 345 425 Poor - Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta BN, C, Al2O3 RF, DC Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 - - - ~300 Good - - - - BN, Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes on W.
Antimony Selenide Sb2Se3 611 - - - - - - - - Ta - - C RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide Sb2S3 550 - 4.64 - - - ~200 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta Al2O3 - No decomposition.
Antimony Telluride Sb2Te3 629 - 6.5 **1.00 - - 600 - - - - - C RF Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic As 817 S 5.73 - 107 150 210 Poor Fabmate® C - - Al2O3 - Sublimes rapidly at low temp.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Arsenic Oxide As2O3 312 - 3.74 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Arsenic Selenide As2Se3 ~360 - 4.75 - - - - - - - - - Al2O3, Q RF -
Arsenic Sulfide As2S3 300 - 3.43 - - - ~400 Fair - Mo - - Al2O3, Q RF -
Arsenic Telluride As2Te3 362 - 6.5 - - - - - - Flash - - - - See JVST. 1973, 10:748
Barium Ba 725 - 3.51 2.1 545 627 735 Fair - W, Ta, Mo W W Metals RF Wets without alloying, reacts with ceramics.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Barium Chloride BaCl2 963 - 3.92 - - - ~650 - - Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Barium Fluoride BaF2 1,355 S 4.89 0.793 - - ~700 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - RF -
Barium Oxide BaO 1,918 - 5.72 - - - ~1,300 Poor - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly.
Barium Sulfide BaS 1,200 - 4.25 - - - 1,100 - - Mo - - - RF -
Barium Titanate BaTiO3 1,625 D 6.02 0.464 - - - - - - - - - RF Gives Ba. Co-evap and Sputter OK.
Beryllium Be 1,278 - 1.85 - 710 878 1,000 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate® W, Ta W W C DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide Be2C >2,100 D 1.9 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Beryllium Chloride BeCl2 405 - 1.9 - - - ~150 - - - - - - RF -
Beryllium Fluoride BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - - ~200 Good - - - - - - -
Beryllium Oxide BeO 2,530 - 3.01 - - - 1,900 Good - - - W - RF, RF-R No decomposition from E-beam guns.
Bismuth Bi 271 - 9.8 0.79 330 410 520 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, Mo, Ta W W Al2O3 DC Resistivity high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth Fluoride BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - - ~300 - - - - - Gr RF -
Bismuth Oxide Bi2O3 860 - 8.55 **1.00 - - ~1,400 Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Bismuth Selenide Bi2Se3 710 D 6.82 **1.00 - - ~650 Good - - - - Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Bismuth Telluride Bi2Te3 573 - 7.7 **1.00 - - ~600 - - W, Mo - - Gr, Q RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate Bi2Ti2O7 870 D - - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
Boron B 2,079 - 2.34 0.389 1,278 1,548 1,797 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite C - - C RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide B4C 2,350 - 2.52 **1.00 2,500 2,580 2,650 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride BN ~3,000 S 2.25 - - - ~1,600 Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes when sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide B2O3 ~450 - 1.81 - - - ~1,400 Good Molybdenum Mo - - - - -
Boron Sulfide B2S3 310 - 1.55 - - - 800 - - - - - Gr RF -
Cadmium Cd 321 - 8.64 0.682 64 120 180 Poor - W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta Al2O3, Q DC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide Cd3Sb2 456 - 6.92 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Arsenide Cd3As2 721 - 6.21 - - - - - - - - - Q RF -
Cadmium Bromide CdBr2 567 - 5.19 - - - ~300 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Chloride CdCl2 568 - 4.05 - - - ~400 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Fluoride CdF2 1,100 - 6.64 - - - ~500 - - - - - - RF -
Cadmium Iodide CdI2 387 - 5.67 - - - ~250 - - - - - - - -
Cadmium Oxide CdO >1,500 D 6.95 - - - ~530 - - - - - - RF-R Disproportionates.
Cadmium Selenide CdSe >1,350 S 5.81 **1.00 - - 540 Good Molybdenum, Tantalum Mo, Ta - - Al2O3, Q RF Evaporates easily.
Cadmium Sulfide CdS 1,750 S 4.82 1.02 - - 550 Fair - W, Mo, Ta - W Al2O3, Q RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium Telluride CdTe 1,092 - 5.85 0.98 - - 450 - - W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo - RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
Calcium Ca 839 S 1.54 2.62 272 357 459 Poor - W W W Al2O3, Q - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride CaF2 1,423 - 3.18 0.775 - - ~1,100 - - W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta Q RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas.
Calcium Oxide CaO 2,614 - ~3.3 - - - ~1,700 - - W, Mo - - ZrO2 RF-R Forms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium Silicate CaSiO3 1,540 - 2.91 - - - - Good - - - - Q RF -
Calcium Sulfide CaS 2,525 D 2.5 - - - 1,100 - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Calcium Titanate CaTiO3 1,975 - 4.1 - 1,490 1,600 1,690 Poor - - - - - RF Disproportionates except in sputtering.
Calcium Tungstate CaWO4 1,200 - 6.06 - - - - Good - W - - - RF -
Carbon C ~3,652 S 1.8–2.1 3.26 1,657 1,867 2,137 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - PDC E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium Ce 798 - ~6.70 **1.00 970 1,150 1,380 Good - W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3 DC, RF -
Cerium (III) Oxide Ce2O3 1,692 - 6.86 - - - - Fair - W - - - - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) Oxide CeO2 ~2,600 - 7.13 **1.00 1,890 2,000 2,310 Good Tantalum, Graphite, Fabmate® W - - - RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride CeF3 1,460 - 6.16 **1.00 - - ~900 Good Tungsten, Tantalum, Molybdenum W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta - RF Preheat gently to outgas. n~1.7.
Cesium Cs 28 - 1.88 - -16 22 80 - - - - - Q - -
Cesium Bromide CsBr 636 - 3.04 - - - ~400 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Chloride CsCl 645 - 3.99 - - - ~500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Fluoride CsF 682 - 4.12 - - - ~500 - - W - - - RF -
Cesium Hydroxide CsOH 272 - 3.68 - - - 550 - - - - - - - -
Cesium Iodide CsI 626 - 4.51 - - - ~500 - - W - - Q RF -
Chiolite Na5Al3F14 735 - 2.9 - - - ~800 - - Mo, W - - - RF -
Chromium Cr 1,857 S 7.2 0.305 837 977 1,157 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten Cr Plated W Rods W W VitC DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride CrB 1,950-2,050 - 6.17 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium (II) Bromide CrBr2 842 - 4.36 - - - 550 - - - - - - RF -
Chromium Carbide Cr3C2 1,895 - 6.68 - - - ~2,000 Fair - W - - - RF -
Chromium Chloride CrCl2 824 - 2.88 - - - 550 - - Fe - - - RF -
Chromium Oxide Cr2O3 2,266 - 5.21 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good - W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium Silicide CrSi2 1,490 - 5.5 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide Cr-SiO - S * - * * * Good - W - W - RF Flash evaporate.
Cobalt † Co 1,495 - 8.9 0.343 850 990 1,200 Excellent Direct in Hearth W, Nb - W Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt Bromide CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - - 400 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Chloride CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - - 472 - - - - - - RF -
Cobalt Oxide CoO 1,795 - 6.45 0.412 - - - - - - - - - DC-R, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Copper Cu 1,083 - 8.92 0.437 727 857 1,017 Excellent Graphite, Molybdenum Mo, W W W Al2O3, Mo, Ta DC Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride CuCl 430 - 4.14 - - - ~600 - - - - - - RF -
Copper Oxide Cu2O 1,235 S 6 **1.00 - - ~600 Good Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 DC-R, RF-R -
Copper Sulfide Cu2S 1,100 - 5.6 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cryolite Na3AlF6 1,000 - 2.9 - 1,020 1,260 1,480 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta VitC RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium Dy 1,412 - 8.55 0.6 625 750 900 Good Direct in Hearth Ta - - - DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride DyF3 1,360 S - - - - ~800 Good - Ta - - - RF -
Dysprosium Oxide Dy2O3 2,340 - 7.81 - - - ~1,400 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium Er 1,529 S 9.07 0.74 650 775 930 Good Tungsten, Tantalum W, Ta - - - DC -
Erbium Fluoride ErF3 1,350 - 7.82 - - - ~750 - - Mo - - - RF See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide Er2O3 2,350 - 8.64 **1.00 - - ~1,600 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium Eu 822 S 5.24 **1.00 280 360 480 Fair - W, Ta - - Al2O3 DC Low Ta solubility.
Europium Fluoride EuF2 1,380 - 6.5 - - - ~950 - - Mo - - - RF -
Europium Oxide Eu2O3 2,350 - 7.42 - - - ~1,600 Good - Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide EuS - - 5.75 - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Gadolinium † Gd 1,313 - 7.9 0.67 760 900 1,175 Excellent Direct in Hearth Ta - - Al2O3 DC High Ta solubility
Gadolinium Carbide GdC2 - - - - - - 1,500 - - - - - C RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 2,330 - 7.41 - - - - Fair - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium Ga 30 - 5.9 - 619 742 907 Good Fabmate® - - - Al2O3, Q - Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Gallium Antimonide GaSb 710 - 5.6 - - - - Fair - W, Ta - - - RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide GaAs 1,238 - 5.3 - - - - Good Graphite, Fabmate® W, Ta - - C RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride GaN 800 S 6.1 - - - ~200 - - - - - Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2.
Gallium Oxide Ga2O3 1,900 - 6.44 - - - - - - W - - - RF Loses oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide GaP 1,540 - 4.1 - - 770 920 - - W, Ta - W Q RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium Ge (N-type) 937 - 5.35 0.516 812 957 1,167 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W, C, Ta - - Q, Al2O3 DC Excellent films from E-beam.
Germanium (II) Oxide GeO 700 S - - - - 500 - - - - - Q RF -
Germanium (III) Oxide GeO2 1,086 - 6.24 - - - ~625 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Nitride Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - - ~650 - - - - - - RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium Telluride GeTe 725 - 6.2 - - - 381 - - W, Mo - W Q, Al2O3 RF -
Glass, Schott® 8329 1,300 - 2.2 - - - - Excellent - - - - - RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold Au 1,064 - 19.32 0.381 807 947 1,132 Excellent Fabmate®, Molybdenum W*** Mo*** W - - Al2O3, BN DC Films soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium Hf 2,227 - 13.31 0.36 2,160 2,250 3,090 Good - - - - - DC -
Hafnium Boride HfB2 3,250 - 10.5 - - - - - - - - - - DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide HfC ~3,890 S 12.2 **1.00 - - ~2,600 - - - - - - RF -
Hafnium Nitride HfN 3,305 - 13.8 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide HfO2 2,758 - 9.68 **1.00 - - ~2,500 Fair Direct in Hearth - - - - RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide HfSi2 1,750 - 7.2 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Holmium Ho 1,474 - 8.8 0.58 650 770 950 Good - W, Ta W W - - -
Holmium Fluoride HoF3 1,143 - 7.68 - - - ~800 - - - - - Q DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide Ho2O3 2,370 - 8.41 - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel® Ni/Cr/Fe 1,425 - 8.5 - - - - Good Fabmate®, Tungsten W W W - DC Use fine wire wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium In 157 - 7.3 0.841 487 597 742 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 DC Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) Oxide In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - - 650 - - - - - - RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide In2O3 850 - 7.18 **1.00 - - ~1,200 Good - W, Pt - - Al2O3 - -
Indium (I) Sulfide In2S 653 - 5.87 - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide InS 692 S 5.18 - - - 650 - - - - - Gr RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide In2S3 1,050 S 4.9 - - - 850 - - - - - Gr RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride InTe 696 - 6.29 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium (III) Telluride In2Te3 667 - 5.78 - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Antimonide InSb 535 - 5.8 - - - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide InAs 943 - 5.7 - 780 870 970 - - W - - - RF -
Indium Nitride InN 1,200 - 7 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Indium Phosphide InP 1,070 - 4.8 - - 630 730 - - W, Ta - W, Ta Gr RF Deposits are P rich.
Indium Selenide In2Se3 890 - 5.67 - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide In2O3/SnO2 90/10 wt % 1,800 S 7.14 - - - - - Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - - -
Iridium Ir 2,410 - 22.42 0.129 1,850 2,080 2,380 Fair - - - - - DC -
Iron † Fe 1,535 - 7.86 0.349 858 998 1,180 Excellent Fabmate® W W W Al2O3 DC Attacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron (II) Oxide FeO 1,369 - 5.7 - - - - Poor - - - - - RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred.
Iron (III) Oxide Fe2O3 1,565 - 5.24 **1.00 - - - Good - W - W - - Disproportionate to Fe3O4 at 1,530°C.
Iron Bromide FeBr2 684 D 4.64 - - - 561 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Chloride FeCl2 670 S 3.16 - - - 300 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Iodide FeI2 - - 5.32 - - - 400 - - - - - Fe RF -
Iron Sulfide FeS 1,193 D 4.74 - - - - - - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes
Kanthal FeCrAl - - 7.1 - - - - - - W W W - DC -
Lanthanum La 921 - 6.17 0.92 990 1,212 1,388 Excellent Tungsten, Tantalum W, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride LaB6 2,210 D 2.61 **1.00 - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Lanthanum Bromide LaBr3 783 - 5.06 - - - - - - - - Ta - RF Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride LaF3 1,490 S ~6.0 - - - 900 Good Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - Ta - RF No decomposition. n~1.6.
Lanthanum Oxide La2O3 2,307 - 6.51 **1.00 - - 1,400 Good Graphite, Fabmate®, Tungsten W, Ta - - - RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73.
Lead Pb 328 - 11.34 1.13 342 427 497 Excellent Fabmate® W, Mo W W, Ta Al2O3, Q DC -
Lead Bromide PbBr2 373 - 6.66 - - - ~300 - - - - - - - -
Lead Chloride PbCl2 501 - 5.85 - - - ~325 - - - - - Al2O3 RF Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride PbF2 855 S 8.24 - - - ~400 - - W, Mo - - BeO RF -
Lead Iodide PbI2 402 - 6.16 - - - ~500 - - - - - Q - -
Lead Oxide PbO 886 - 9.53 - - - ~550 - - - - - Q, Al2O3 RF-R No decomposition. n~2.6.
Lead Selenide PbSe 1,065 S 8.1 - - - ~500 - - W, Mo - W Gr, Al2O3 RF -
Lead Stannate PbSnO3 1,115 - 8.1 - 670 780 905 Poor - - - - Al2O3 RF Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide PbS 1,114 S 7.5 - - - 500 - - W - W, Mo Q, Al2O3 RF Little decomposition.
Lead Telluride PbTe 917 - 8.16 0.651 780 910 1,050 - - Mo, Pt, Ta - - Al2O3, Gr RF Deposits are Ta rich. Sputtering preferred.
Lead Titanate PbTiO3 - - 7.52 1.16 - - - - - Ta - - - RF -
Lithium Li 181 - 0.53 5.9 227 307 407 Good Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 - Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide LiBr 550 - 3.46 - - - ~500 - - Ni - - - RF -
Lithium Chloride LiCl 605 - 2.07 - - - 400 - - Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Fluoride LiF 845 - 2.64 0.778 875 1,020 1,180 Good Tantalum, Tungsten, Molybdenum Ni, Ta, Mo, W - - Al2O3 RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Iodide LiI 449 - 4.08 - - - 400 - - Mo, W - - - RF -
Lithium Niobate LiNbO3 - - - 0.463 - - - - - - - - - - -
Lithium Oxide Li2O >1,700 - 2.01 - - - 850 - - - - - - RF -
Lutetium Lu 1,663 - 9.84 - - - 1,300 Excellent Direct in Hearth Ta - - Al2O3 RF, DC -
Lutetium Oxide Lu2O3 - - 9.42 - - - 1,400 - - - - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Mg 649 S 1.74 1.61 185 247 327 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W Al2O3 DC Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate MgAl2O4 2,135 - 3.6 - - - - Good - - - - - RF Natural spinel.
Magnesium Bromide MgBr2 700 - 3.72 - - - ~450 - - Ni - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride MgCl2 714 - 2.32 - - - 400 - - Ni - - - RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Fluoride MgF2 1,261 - 2.9–3.2 0.637 - - 1,000 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum Mo, Ta - - Al2O3 RF Substrate temp and rate control important. Reacts with W. Mo OK.
Magnesium Iodide MgI2 <637 D 4.43 - - - 200 - - - - - - RF -
Magnesium Oxide MgO 2,852 - 3.58 0.411 - - 1,300 Good Fabmate®, Graphite - - - C, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3 Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
Manganese Mn 1,244 S 7.2 0.377 507 572 647 Good Tungsten W, Ta, Mo W W Al2O3 DC -
Manganese (II) Oxide MnO 1945 - 5.37 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (III) Oxide Mn2O3 1,080 - 4.5 0.467 - - - - - - - - - - -
Manganese (IV) Oxide MnO2 535 - 5.03 - - - - Poor - W - W - RF-R Loses oxygen at 535°C.
Manganese Bromide MnBr2 - D 4.39 - - - 500 - - - - - - RF -
Manganese Chloride MnCl2 650 - 2.98 - - - 450 - - - - - - RF -
Manganese Sulfide MnS - D 3.99 - - - 1,300 - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Mercury Hg -39 - 13.55 - -68 -42 -6 - - - - - - - -
Mercury Sulfide HgS 584 S 8.1 - - - 250 - - - - - Al2O3 RF Decomposes.
Molybdenum Mo 2,617 - 10.2 0.257 1,592 1,822 2,117 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - DC Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride MoB2 2,100 - 7.12 - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Carbide Mo2C 2,687 - 8.9 **1.00 - - - Fair - - - - - RF Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Sulfide MoS2 1,185 - 4.8 **1.00 - - ~50 - - - - - - RF -
Molybdenum Oxide MoO3 795 S 4.69 **1.00 - - ~900 - - Mo - Mo Al2O3, BN RF Slight oxygen loss.
Molybdenum Silicide MoSi2 2,050 - 6.31 **1.00 - - - - - W - - - RF Decomposes.
Neodymium Nd 1,021 - 7.01 **1.00 731 871 1,062 Excellent Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 DC Low W solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride NdF3 1,410 - 6.5 - - - ~900 Good Tungsten, Molybdenum Mo, W - Mo, Ta Al2O3 RF Very little decomposition.
Neodymium Oxide Nd2O3 ~1,900 - 7.24 - - - ~1,400 Good Tantalum, Tungsten Ta, W - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred.
Nichrome IV® Ni/Cr 1,395 - 8.5 **1.00 847 987 1,217 Excellent Fabmate® *** W W, Ta Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Nickel † Ni 1,453 - 8.91 0.331 927 1,072 1,262 Excellent Fabmate® W*** - - Al2O3 DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide NiBr2 963 S 5.1 - - - 362 - - - - - - RF -
Nickel Chloride NiCl2 1,001 S 3.55 - - - 444 - - - - - - RF -
Nickel Oxide NiO 1,984 - 6.67 **1.00 - - ~1,470 - - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Dissociates on heating.
Nickel/Iron † Ni/Fe - - 8.7 **1.00 - - - - Fabmate® - - - - - -
Nimendium † Ni3%Mn 1,425 - 8.8 - - - - - - - - - - DC -
Niobium Nb 2,468 - 8.57 0.492 1,728 1,977 2,287 Excellent Fabmate® - - - - DC Attacks W source.
Niobium (II) Oxide NbO - - 7.3 - - - 1,100 - - - - - - RF -
Niobium (III) Oxide Nb2O3 1,780 - 7.5 - - - - - - W - W - RF, RF-R -
Niobium (V) Oxide Nb2O5 1,485 - 4.6 **1.00 - - - - - W - W - RF, RF-R -
Niobium Boride NbB2 2,900 - 6.97 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Niobium Carbide NbC 3,500 - 7.6 **1.00 - - - Fair - - - - - RF -
Niobium Nitride NbN 2,573 - 8.4 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2.
Niobium Telluride NbTe2 - - 7.6 - - - - - - - - - - RF Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin Nb3Sn - - - - - - - Excellent - - - - - DC Co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Osmium Os 3,045 - 22.48 - 2,170 2,430 2,760 Fair - - - - - DC -
Osmium Oxide Os2O3 - D - - - - - - - - - - - - Deposits Os in 10-3 Torr O2.
Palladium Pd 1,554 S 12.02 0.357 842 992 1,192 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W*** W W Al2O3 DC Alloys with refractory metals.
Palladium Oxide PdO 870 - 9.7 - - - 575 - - - - - Al2O3 RF-R Decomposes.
Parylene C8H8 300–400 - 1.1 - - - - - - - - - - - Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy® Ni/Fe/Mo/Mn 1,395 - 8.7 **1.00 947 1,047 1,307 Good Fabmate® W - - Al2O3 DC Film low in Ni.
Phosphorus P 44.1 - 1.82 - 327 361 402 - - - - - Al2O3 - Material reacts violently in air.
Phosphorus Nitride P3N5 - - 2.51 - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Platinum Pt 1,772 - 21.45 0.245 1,292 1,492 1,747 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite W W W C DC Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion. Temperatures required to achieve deposition may not be practical for thermal evaporation.
Platinum Oxide PtO2 450 - 10.2 - - - - - - - - - - RF-R E-beam preferred for evaporation.
Plutonium Pu 641 - 19.84 - - - - - - W - - - - -
Polonium Po 254 - 9.4 - 117 170 244 - - - - - Q - -
Potassium K 63 - 0.86 - 23 60 125 - - Mo - - Q - Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide KBr 734 - 2.75 - - - ~450 - - Ta, Mo - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Chloride KCl 770 S 1.98 - - - 510 Good Tantalum Ta, Ni - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Fluoride KF 858 - 2.48 - - - ~500 - - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Hydroxide KOH 360 - 2.04 - - - ~400 - - - - - - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide KI 681 - 3.13 - - - ~500 - - Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Praseodymium Pr 931 - 6.77 **1.00 800 950 1,150 Good - Ta - - - DC -
Praseodymium Oxide Pr2O3 - D 7.07 - - - 1,400 Good - - - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
PTFE PTFE 330 - 2.9 - - - - - - W - - - RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Radium Ra 700 - 5.5 - 246 320 416 - - - - - - - -
Rhenium Re 3,180 - 21.02 0.15 1,928 2,207 2,571 Poor - - - - - DC -
Rhenium Oxide ReO3 - D ~7 - - - - - - - - - - RF Evaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2.
Rhodium Rh 1,966 - 12.41 0.21 1,277 1,472 1,707 Good Fabmate®, Tungsten W W W ThO2, VitC DC E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium Rb 39 - 1.48 - -3 37 111 - - - - - Q - -
Rubidium Chloride RbCl 718 - 2.09 - - - ~550 - - - - - Q RF -
Rubidium Iodide RbI 647 - 3.55 - - - ~400 - - - - - Q RF -
Ruthenium Ru 2,310 - 12.3 0.182 1,780 1,990 2,260 Poor - - - - - DC -
Samarium Sm 1,074 - 7.52 0.89 373 460 573 Good - Ta - - Al2O3 DC -
Samarium Oxide Sm2O3 2,350 - 8.35 - - - - Good - - - - ThO2 RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide Sm2S3 1,900 - 5.73 - - - - Good - - - - - - -
Scandium Sc 1,541 - 2.99 0.91 714 837 1,002 Excellent Tungsten, Molybdenum W - - Al2O3 RF Alloys with Ta.
Scandium Oxide Sc2O3 2,300 - 3.86 - - - ~400 Fair - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Selenium Se 217 - 4.81 0.864 89 125 170 Good Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Al2O3 - Bad for vacuum systems. High V.P. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Silicon Si 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - RF Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced.
Silicon (II) Oxide SiO >1,702 S 2.13 0.87 - - 850 Fair Fabmate®, Tungsten, Tantalum Ta W W Ta RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate.
Silicon (IV) Oxide SiO2 1,610 - ~2.65 **1.00 * * 1,025* Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tantalum - - - Al2O3 RF Quartz excellent in E-beam.
Silicon (N-type) Si (N-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - DC, RF -
Silicon (P-type) Si (P-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair Fabmate®‡, Tantalum - - - - DC, RF -
Silicon Boride SiB6 - - - - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Silicon Carbide SiC ~2,700 S, D 3.22 **1.00 - - 1,000 - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred.
Silicon Nitride Si3N4 1,900 - 3.44 **1.00 - - ~800 - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Silicon Selenide SiSe - - - - - - 550 - - - - - Q RF -
Silicon Sulfide SiS 940 S 1.85 - - - 450 - - - - - Q RF -
Silicon Telluride SiTe2 - - 4.39 - - - 550 - - - - - Q RF -
Silver Ag 962 - 10.5 0.529 847 958 1,105 Excellent Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tantalum W Mo Ta, Mo Al2O3, W DC -
Silver Bromide AgBr 432 D 6.47 - - - ~380 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Silver Chloride AgCl 455 - 5.56 - - - ~520 - - Mo - Mo Q RF -
Silver Iodide AgI 558 - 6.01 - - - ~500 - - Ta - - - RF -
Sodium Na 98 - 0.97 - 74 124 192 - - Ta - - Q - Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.
Sodium Bromide NaBr 747 - 3.2 - - - ~400 - - - - - Q RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Chloride NaCl 801 - 2.17 - - - 530 Good - Ta, W, Mo - - Q RF Copper oven; little decomposition. Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Cyanide NaCN 564 - - - - - ~550 - - - - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Fluoride NaF 993 - 2.56 - - - ~1,000 Good Tungsten, Fabmate® Mo, Ta, W - - BeO RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition.
Sodium Hydroxide NaOH 318 - 2.13 - - - ~470 - - - - - - - Preheat gently to outgas.
Spinel MgAI2O4 - - 8 - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Strontium Sr 769 - 2.6 **1.00 239 309 403 Poor - W, Ta, Mo W W VitC RF Wets but does not alloy with W/Ta/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride SrCl2 875 - 3.05 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Strontium Fluoride SrF2 1,473 - 4.24 - - - ~1,000 - - - - - Al2O3 RF -
Strontium Oxide SrO 2,430 S 4.7 - - - 1,500 - - Mo - - Al2O3 RF Reacts with W/Mo.
Strontium Sulfide SrS >2,000 - 3.7 - - - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Strontium Titanate SrTiO3 - - 4.81 0.31 - - - - - - - - - - -
Sulfur S 113 - 2.07 - 13 19 57 Poor - W - W Q - Bad for vacuum systems.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Supermalloy® Ni/Fe/Mo 1,410 - 8.9 - - - - Good Fabmate®‡, - - - - DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo.
Tantalum Ta 3,017 - 16.6 0.262 1,960 2,240 2,590 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite - - - - DC Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride TaB2 3,000(?) - 11.15 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tantalum Carbide TaC 3,880 - 13.9 **1.00 - - ~2,500 - - - - - - RF -
Tantalum Nitride TaN 3,360 - 16.3 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2.
Tantalum Pentoxide Ta2O5 1,872 - 8.2 0.3 1,550 1,780 1,920 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta W W VitC RF, RF-R Slight decomposition. Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr O2.
Tantalum Sulfide TaS2 >1,300 - - - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Technetium Tc 2,200 - 11.5 - 1,570 1,800 2,090 - - - - - - - -
Tellurium Te 449 - 6.25 0.9 157 207 277 Poor Fabmate® W, Ta W W, Ta Al2O3, Q RF Wets without alloying.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Terbium Tb 1,356 - 8.27 0.66 800 950 1,150 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum Ta - - Al2O3 RF -
Terbium Fluoride TbF3 1,172 - - - - - ~800 - - - - - - RF -
Terbium Oxide Tb2O3 2,387 - 7.87 - - - 1,300 - - - - - - RF Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide Tb4O7 - D - - - - - - - Ta - - - RF Films TbO.
Thallium Tl 304 - 11.85 - 280 360 470 Poor Fabmate® W, Ta - W Al2O3, Q DC Wets freely.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Thallium Bromide TlBr 480 S 7.56 - - - ~250 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Thallium Chloride TlCl 430 S 7 - - - ~150 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Thallium Iodide TlI 440 S 7.1 - - - ~250 - - - - - Q RF -
Thallium Oxide Tl2O2 717 - 10.19 - - - 350 - - - - - - RF Disproportionates at 850°C to Tl2O.
Thorium Th 1,750 - 11.7 - 1,430 1,660 1,925 Excellent Molybdenum, Tantalum, Tungsten W, Ta, Mo W W - - -
Thorium Bromide ThBr4 610 S 5.67 - - - - - - Mo - - - - -
Thorium Carbide ThC2 2,655 - 8.96 - - - ~2,300 - - - - - C RF -
Thorium Fluoride ThF4 >900 - 6.32 - - - ~750 Fair - Mo - W VitC RF -
Thorium Oxide ThO2 3,220 - 9.86 - - - ~2,100 Good Tungsten - - - - RF, RF-R -
Thorium Oxyfluoride ThOF2 900 - 9.1 - - - - - - Mo, Ta - - - - -
Thorium Sulfide ThS2 1,925 - 7.3 - - - - - - - - - - RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Thulium Tm 1,545 S 9.32 - 461 554 680 Good - Ta - - Al2O3 DC -
Thulium Oxide Tm2O3 - - 8.9 - - - 1,500 - - - - - - RF Decomposes.
Tin Sn 232 - 7.28 0.724 682 807 997 Excellent Fabmate®, Tantalum Mo W W Al2O3 DC Wets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Tin Oxide SnO2 1,630 S 6.95 **1.00 - - ~1,000 Excellent - W W W Q, Al2O3 RF, RF-R Films from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air.
Tin Selenide SnSe 861 - 6.18 - - - ~400 Good - - - - Q RF -
Tin Sulfide SnS 882 - 5.22 - - - ~450 - - - - - Q RF -
Tin Telluride SnTe 780 D 6.48 - - - ~450 - - - - - Q RF -
Titanium Ti 1,660 - 4.5 0.628 1,067 1,235 1,453 Excellent Fabmate®, Intermetallic​ W - - TiC,Ti2​-BN DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium (II) Oxide TiO 1,750 - 4.95 **1.00 - - ~1,500 Good Fabmate®, Tantalum W, Mo - - VitC RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Titanium (III) Oxide Ti2O3 2,130 D 4.6 - - - - Good Fabmate®, Tantalum W - - - RF Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide TiO2 1,830 - 4.23 0.4 - - ~1,300 Fair Fabmate®, Tantalum W, Mo - W - RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti.
Titanium Boride TiB2 2,900 - 4.5 **1.00 - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Titanium Carbide TiC 3,140 - 4.93 **1.00 - - ~2,300 - - - - - - RF -
Titanium Nitride TiN 2,930 - 5.4 **1.00 - - - Good Molybdenum Mo - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Tungsten W 3,410 - 19.25 0.163 2,117 2,407 2,757 Good Direct in Hearth - - - - DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride WB2 ~2,900 - 10.77 - - - - Poor - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Carbide WC 2,860 - 15.63 0.151 1,480 1,720 2,120 Excellent Graphite, Fabmate® C - - - RF -
Tungsten Disulfide WS2 1,250 D 7.5 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Oxide WO3 1,473 S 7.16 **1.00 - - 980 Good Tungsten W - - - RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly.
Tungsten Selenide WSe2 - - 9 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Silicide WSi2 >900 - 9.4 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF -
Tungsten Telluride WTe2 - - 9.49 - - - - - - - - - Q RF -
Uranium U 1,132 - 19.05 - 1,132 1,327 1,582 Good - Mo, W W W - - Films oxidize.
Uranium (II) Sulfide US >2,000 - 10.87 - - - - - - - - - - - -
Uranium (III) Oxide U2O3 1,300 D 8.3 - - - - - - W - W - RF-R Disproportionates at 1,300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide UO2 2,878 - 10.96 - - - - - - W - W - RF Ta causes decomposition.
Uranium (IV) Sulfide US2 >1,100 - 7.96 - - - - - - W - - - RF Slight decomposition.
Uranium Carbide UC2 2,350 - 11.28 - - - 2,100 - - - - - C RF Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride UF4 960 - 6.7 - - - 300 - - Ni - - - RF -
Uranium Phosphide UP2 - - 8.57 - - - 1,200 - - Ta - - - RF Decomposes.
Vanadium V 1,890 - 5.96 0.53 1,162 1,332 1,547 Excellent Tungsten W, Mo - - - DC Wets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium (IV) Oxide VO2 1,967 S 4.34 - - - ~575 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide V2O5 690 D 3.36 **1.00 - - ~500 - - - - - Q RF -
Vanadium Boride VB2 2,400 - 5.1 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Vanadium Carbide VC 2,810 - 5.77 **1.00 - - ~1,800 - - - - - - RF -
Vanadium Nitride VN 2,320 - 6.13 - - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R -
Vanadium Silicide VSi2 1,700 - 4.42 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Ytterbium Yb 819 S 6.98 1.13 520 590 690 Good Tantalum Ta - - - - -
Ytterbium Fluoride YbF3 1,157 - 8.2 - - - ~800 - Tantalum, Molybdenum Mo - - - RF -
Ytterbium Oxide Yb2O3 2,346 S 9.17 **1.00 - - ~1,500 - - - - - - RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Yttrium Y 1,522 - 4.47 0.835 830 973 1,157 Excellent Tungsten W, Ta W W Al2O3 RF, DC High Ta solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide Y3Al5O12 1,990 - - - - - - Good - - W W - RF Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride YF3 1,387 - 4.01 - - - - - Tantalum, Molybdenum - - - - RF -
Yttrium Oxide Y2O3 2,410 - 5.01 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten W - - C RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films smooth and clear.
Zinc Zn 420 - 7.14 0.514 127 177 250 Excellent Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten Mo, W, Ta W W Al2O3, Q DC Evaporates well under wide range of conditions.
Zinc Antimonide Zn3Sb2 570 - 6.33 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Zinc Bromide ZnBr2 394 - 4.2 - - - ~300 - - W - - C RF Decomposes.
Zinc Fluoride ZnF2 872 - 4.95 - - - ~800 - - Ta - - Q RF -
Zinc Nitride Zn3N2 - - 6.22 - - - - - - Mo - - - RF Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide ZnO 1,975 - 5.61 0.556 - - ~1,800 Fair - - - - - RF-R -
Zinc Selenide ZnSe >1,100 - 5.42 0.722 - - 660 - Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo Q RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well.
Zinc Sulfide ZnS 1,700 S 3.98 0.775 - - ~800 Good Tantalum, Molybdenum Ta, Mo - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n=2.356.
Zinc Telluride ZnTe 1,239 - 6.34 0.77 - - ~600 - - Mo, Ta - - - RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Zirconium Zr 1,852 - 6.49 0.6 1,477 1,702 1,987 Excellent - W - - - DC Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride ZrB2 ~3,200 - 6.09 - - - - Good - - - - - RF -
Zirconium Carbide ZrC 3,540 - 6.73 0.264 - - ~2,500 - - - - - - RF -
Zirconium Nitride ZrN 2,980 - 7.09 **1.00 - - - - - - - - - RF, RF-R Reactively evaporate in 10-3 Torr N2.
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 ~2,700 - 5.89 **1.00 - - ~2,200 Good Graphite, Tungsten W - - - RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard.
Zirconium Silicate ZrSiO4 2,550 - 4.56 - - - - - - - - - - RF -
Zirconium Silicide ZrSi2 1,700 - 4.88 - - - - - - - - - - RF -

Z-Factors

Empirical Determination of Z-Factor

Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:

  • Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
  • Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
  • Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
  • Zero thickness
  • Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
  • Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
  • Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.

Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.

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