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Enhancing the Surface Properties & Functionalization of Polymethyl Methacrylate with Atomic Layer Deposited Titanium (IV) Oxide

June 07, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

Mina Shahmohammadi from the research group of Professor Christos G. Takoudis, Full Professor in the Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering at the University of Illinois at Chicago, in collaboration with College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, and Kurt J. Lesker Company recently developed conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) based titanium (IV) oxide (TiO2) thin film processes on Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) displaying excellent surface and mechanical properties for potential engineering, medical, and biomedical applications. The findings were recently published in the Journal of Materials Science.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Determination of the Acoustic Impedance Ratio for the Thermal Co-evaporation of Metal-halide Perovskites

April 19, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

*Photo: ISFH, taken by Salzmann-Fotografie*

The Kurt J Lesker Company has been shipping Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) tools into the field of perovskite solar cells for the last decade and continues to support researchers in this exciting application. Our partner, Dr. Sascha J. Wolter, along with the Future Technologies Photovoltaics group, headed by Dr. Sarah Kajari-Schröder, at the Institute for Solar Energy Research (ISFH) in Hamelin, Germany, have presented a method to determine the acoustic impedance ratio (Z) for two perovskite precursors that are commonly co-deposited using PVD. In their paper "Determination and influence evaluation of the acoustic impedance ratio for thermal evaporation"[1] they report Z values for methylammonium iodide (MAI) of 0.025 ±0.002 and 0.11 ±0.01 for lead (II) iodide (PbI2). Furthermore, the impact of using an incorrect Z-ratio on actual experimental thermal evaporations is investigated.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Tuning Quantum Properties in a Novel Magnetic Material by Thin Film Engineering

March 04, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

When a magnetic field (B in Fig. 1 (a)) is applied to a metal, the electric current (J in Fig. 1 (a)) flowing through the metal will be deflected by the magnetic field so that it is not parallel with the applied electric field (E in Fig. 1 (a)). This phenomenon, known as the Hall effect, is well understood in the classical physics. Later, the research on magnetic materials discovered that in certain magnetic materials, the Berry phase, one of the quantum properties of electrons, can alter the motion of electrons without the presence of an external magnetic field (Fig. 1 (b)). This phenomenon is known as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). In AHE experiments, two quantities are measured: The longitudinal conductivity σxx, which is the conductivity of the material along the direction of the electric field; and the transverse conductivity σxy, which is the conductivity along the perpendicular direction of the electric field. The ratio between σxy and σxx, defined as the anomalous Hall angle, measures the strength of the intrinsic deflection by the Berry phase: The higher the σxy/σxx is, the more prominent the Berry phase is.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Flexible Distributed Bragg Reflectors as Optical Outcouplers for OLEDs Based on a Polymeric Anode

January 29, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

The Kurt J. Lesker Company (KJLC) has supported organic electronics research since producing its first dedicated PVD tool series over 20 years ago, enabling many breakthrough results. Recently a team from CNR NANOTEC (Lecce, Italy) has reported a strategy to improve the stability and durability of flexible top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes in their paper "Flexible distributed Bragg reflectors as optical outcouplers for OLEDs based on a polymeric anode", with results obtained using both KJLC deposition tools and materials.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Development of Flexible Magnetic Thin Films and Control of Their Properties via Surface Roughness Effects

January 29, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

The ability to fabricate flexible nano-thin films is of great interest because of the increased demand for flexible technologies, a paradigm shift in high-tech and consumer electronics, already making significant technological and commercial impact by enabling the emergence of flexible photovoltaics, flexible electronics, flexible smart textiles and flexible displays. Flexible thin films are typically achieved by coating a given material onto a flexible substrate, via a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, where the coating ingredients are mostly organic materials and chemicals. Coating flexible thin films from inorganic materials such as metals, functional alloys, heterostructures, semiconductors, oxides and ceramics via solid state DC / RF plasma sputtering is less known, and it is unclear how the flexible substrate affects their properties. This project demonstrated the successful production of flexible magnetic thin films with excellent adhesion and mechanical robustness. Remarkably, the films maintained their structure, integrity and physical properties at any curvature bending applied to the flexible samples.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Novel Physical Model for Analyzing Charge-To-Spin Conversion Efficiency in Magnetic Nanowires

January 21, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

Electrons have two fundamental physical properties, their charge and spin. The charge of electrons has been discovered and carefully measured long time ago[1]. The utilization of the electron charge can be found in all electronic devices. The manipulation of the electron spin, on the other hand, has been proved to be more challenging because of its quantum mechanical nature. To elucidate the physics and to design applications of the electron spin, a research area named spintronics has been established, and its rapid advance has identified the essential role of the electron spin in many fundamental properties of condensed matter systems such as the spin Hall effect[2] and the quantum spin Hall effect[3]. In addition, the research on the electron spin has resulted in numerous applications such as the giant magnetoresistance structures and tunneling magnetoresistance devices[4].

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Self Assembling 3D Germanium Quantum Wires in Amorphous Alumina Matrix by Magnetron Sputtering

January 20, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

Semiconductor Quantum Wires (QW) are nanoscale structures of semiconductor material whose electro-optical properties are heavily influenced by electron quantum confinement effects, due to their small structure. These structures show great promise for use in applications including sensors, quantum computing, bioelectronic and solar cells [1, 2, 3]. It is stated that, traditionally, 3D structures of QW are fabricated using high-resolution lithography. This is a very complex and expensive method making it less appealing for large scale production of QW devices. A team at the Rudjer Boskovic Institute in Croatia, in collaboration with the National Institute of Chemistry (Ljubljana) and the Slovak Academy of Sciences developed a simple method for tuning the parameters of the QW lattice unit cell by depositing self-assembling Germanium (Ge) QW in an Alumina (Al2O3) matrix by co-sputtering [4]. This straightforward approach involves varying the Ge DC sputtering power, in order to control the Ge concentration in the matrix, and the temperature of the substrate during the deposition.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



New Routes to More Efficient Vapor Deposited Metal-Halide Perovskite Films

January 11, 2021 | By KJLC Innovate

For nearly a decade the Kurt J Lesker Company has been shipping Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) tools into the field of perovskite solar cells around the world and continues to support world class research into this exciting technology. A key topic in the fabrication of vapor deposited perovskite photovoltaics is how much the crystal grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance (see Figure 1). Recent work, published in ACS Energy Letters, titled "Control over crystal size in vapor deposited metal-halide perovskite films' by Killian Lohmann, Jay Patel, Mathias Uller Rothmann, Chelsea Xia, Robert Oliver, Laura Herz, Henry Snaith and Michael Johnston from the University of Oxford, in the UK, has not only identified key parameters that effect the grain growth in perovskite thin films but the team has also developed a novel method to control the deposition of the organic precursor, resulting in highly efficient solar cells.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Uncovered Potential of Co2MnGa in Spintronics

October 26, 2020 | By KJLC Innovate

The Kurt J. Lesker Company continues to support the researchers who are advancing the science and technology of spintronics around the world. Co2MnGa, a Heusler material, has been attractive to scientists as a novel magnetic conducting material on which spintronic structures like magnetic tunnel junctions can be built. Recent work, published in Applied Physics Letter titled "Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2MnGa and its anomalous Hall Effect" by Dr. Ludbrook, Dr. Ruck and Dr. Granville from Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, has identified characteristics of thin film Co2MnGa that are necessary for realizing magnetic tunnel junctions.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



Comparison of Hafnium Dioxide & Zirconium Dioxide Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition for the Application of Electronic Materials

October 01, 2020 | By KJLC Innovate

Dr. Zhigang Xiao, Professor of Electrical Engineering at Alabama A&M University, in collaboration with the ALD group in the Kurt J. Lesker Company recently developed the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition process and grow high dielectric constant (K) oxide for the application of electronic materials. They grew nanoscale hafnium dioxide (HfO2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thin films using remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) and fabricated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Miniaturization in modern semiconductor industry requires thin film deposition to have atomic level control and the deposited film to be conformal and pinhole-free. As MOSFETs are scaled down to nanometer sizes, the tunneling currents through the gate dielectrics (the gate leakage current) has become a major concern in today’s fabrication of integrated circuits (ICs). High-K dielectric metal oxide could be a solution to the problem of the gate leakage current. The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films meets the requirement and can produce conformal and ultra-thin films with precise thickness control at the atomic layer level. The experimental results measured from the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were compared.

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INNOVATE Systems Vacuum Science Deposition Techniques



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