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Nickel/Iron Ni/Fe 81/19 wt % Notes

Nickel/Iron (Ni/Fe 81/19 wt %) General Information

Nickel is a hard, lustrous, silvery-white metal. It has a density of 8.91 g/cc, a melting point of 1,453°C, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,262°C. Iron is soft, gray, and metallic. It has a density of 7.86 g/cc, a melting point of 1,535°C, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,180°C. The theoretical density of the nickel/iron 81/19 WT% alloy is 8.7 g/cc. Iron is very reactive with air, forming rust spots that flake off, exposing clean surfaces susceptible to oxidation. Nickel and iron are the most common elements in the earth's core and two of the most widely used metals in modern industry. Both elements are ferromagnetic, ductile, and conductors of heat and electricity. Naturally occurring nickel/iron alloys are often found in meteorites. Nickel/iron alloys are often evaporated in vacuum to form films in the production of semiconductors and magnetic storage media.

Nickel/Iron Ni/Fe 81/19 wt % Specifications

Material TypeNickel Oxide
Color/AppearanceGreen, Crystalline Solid
Melting Point (°C)1,984
Theoretical Density (g/cc)6.67
Type of BondIndium, Elastomer
Z Ratio**1.00
Thermal Evaporation Techniques Crucible:  Al2O3
Temp. (°C) for Given Vap. Press. (Torr) 10-4:  ~1,470
CommentsDissociates on heating.

** The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.


Empirical Determination of Z-Factor

Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:

  • Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
  • Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
  • Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
  • Zero thickness
  • Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
  • Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
  • Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.

Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.

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