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Titanium Ti Evaporation Process Notes

Titanium is a common material found in a myriad of products including watches, drill bits, laptops, and bicycles, just to name a few. In pure form, it is lustrous and silvery-white in appearance. It has a melting point of 1,660°C, a density of 4.5 g/cc, and a vapor pressure of 10-4 Torr at 1,453°C. It is a sturdy material which is easily fabricated when heat is applied. Its strong, lightweight characteristics and excellent corrosion resistance make it ideal for ocean liner hulls, aircraft engines, and designer jewelry. Titanium is biocompatible so it can be found in surgical tools and implants. Titanium is generally evaporated in vacuum for the purposes of wear and decorative, semiconductor, and optical coatings.

Titanium Ti Specifications

Material TypeTitanium
Atomic Weight47.867
Atomic Number22
Color/AppearanceSilvery Metallic
Thermal Conductivity21.9 W/m.K
Melting Point (°C)1,660
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion8.6 x 10-6/K
Theoretical Density (g/cc)4.5
Max Power Density
(Watts/Square Inch)
Type of BondIndium, Elastomer
Z Ratio0.628
Thermal Evaporation Techniques Boat:  W
Crucible:  TiC,TiB2-BN
E-Beam Crucible Liner MaterialFABMATE®, Intermetallic​
Temp. (°C) for Given Vap. Press. (Torr) 10-8:  1,067
10-6:  1,235
10-4:  1,453
CommentsAlloys with W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.

* This is a recommendation based on our experience running these materials in KJLC guns. The ratings are based on unbonded targets and are material specific. Bonded targets should be run at lower powers to prevent bonding failures. Bonded targets should be run at 20 Watts/Square Inch or lower, depending on the material.


Empirical Determination of Z-Factor

Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:

  • Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
  • Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
  • Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
  • Zero thickness
  • Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
  • Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
  • Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.

Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.

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