We sell these pellets and pieces by unit weight for evaporation use in deposition processes. These approximate materials prices are published to provide budgetary guidelines. Actual prices can vary and may be higher or lower, as determined by availability and market fluctuations. To speak to someone directly about current pricing, please
Gadolinium Oxide (Gd2O3) Specifications
Melting Point (°C)
Theoretical Density (g/cc)
Empirical Determination of Z-Factor
Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:
Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.
Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.
See highlighted results that match your result in the table below.
Contact Us - Gadolinium Oxide Gd2O3 Evaporation Materials