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Material Deposition Chart




Key of Symbols

✝ Magnetic material (requires special sputter source)

‡ One run only

* Influenced by composition

** The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally
determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.

*** All metals alumina coated

C = carbon

Gr = graphite

Q = quartz

Incl = Inconel®

VitC = vitreous carbon

SS = stainless steel

Ex = excellent

G = good

F = fair

P = poor

S = sublimes

D = decomposes

PDC = Pulsed DC sputtering

RF = RF sputtering is effective

RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective

DC = DC sputtering is effective

DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


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Initial letter of the deposition material.

A   B   C   D   E   G   H   I   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   Y   Z   ▲Back to Top
Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio 10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible Sputter Comments
Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation
Aluminum
Al 660 - 2.7 1.08 677 821 1,010 Excellent   Fabmate®, Intermetallic  - - W   TiB2-BN, BN  DC Alloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum Antimonide
AlSb 1,080 - 4.3 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Aluminum Arsenide
AlAs 1,600 - 3.7 - - - ~1,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Aluminum Bromide
AlBr3 97 - 2.64 - - - ~50 -  -  Mo - -   Gr  - -
Aluminum Carbide
Al4C3 ~1,400 D 2.36 - - - ~800 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF -
Aluminum Fluoride
AlF3 1,291 S 2.88 - 410 490 700 Poor   Graphite, Fabmate®  Mo, W, Ta - -   Gr  RF -
Aluminum Nitride
AlN >2,200 S 3.26 **1.00 - - ~1,750 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF-R Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide
Al2O3 2,072 - 3.97 0.336 - - 1,550 Excellent   Fabmate®, Tungsten  - - -  -  RF-R Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.  Thermal evaporation likely not possible.
Aluminum Phosphide
AlP 2,000 - 2.42 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Aluminum, 1% Copper
Al/Cu 99/1 wt% 640 - 2.82 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% Silicon
Al/Si 99/1 wt % 640 - 2.69 **1.00 - - 1,010 -  -  - - -   TiB2-BN  RF, DC Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony
Sb 630 S 6.68 0.768 279 345 425 Poor  -  Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta   BN, C, Al2O3  RF, DC Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide
Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 - - - ~300 Good  -  - - -   BN, Al2O3  RF-R Decomposes on W.
Antimony Selenide
Sb2Se3 611 - - - - - - -  -  Ta - -   C  RF Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide
Sb2S3 550 - 4.64 - - - ~200 Good   Molybdenum, Tantalum  Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta   Al2O3  - No decomposition.
Antimony Telluride
Sb2Te3 629 - 6.5 **1.00 - - 600 -  -  - - -   C  RF Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic
As 817 S 5.73 - 107 150 210 Poor   Fabmate®  C - -   Al2O3  - Sublimes rapidly at low temp.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Arsenic Oxide
As2O3 312 - 3.74 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Arsenic Selenide
As2Se3 ~360 - 4.75 - - - - -  -  - - -   Al2O3, Q  RF -
Arsenic Sulfide
As2S3 300 - 3.43 - - - ~400 Fair  -  Mo - -   Al2O3, Q  RF -
Arsenic Telluride
As2Te3 362 - 6.5 - - - - -  -  Flash - -  -  - See JVST. 1973, 10:748
Barium
Ba 725 - 3.51 2.1 545 627 735 Fair  -  W, Ta, Mo W W  Metals  RF Wets without alloying, reacts with ceramics.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Barium Chloride
BaCl2 963 - 3.92 - - - ~650 -  -  Ta, Mo - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Barium Fluoride
BaF2 1,355 S 4.89 0.793 - - ~700 Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF -
Barium Oxide
BaO 1,918 - 5.72 - - - ~1,300 Poor  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF, RF-R Decomposes slightly.
Barium Sulfide
BaS 1,200 - 4.25 - - - 1,100 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF -
Barium Titanate
BaTiO3 1,625 D 6.02 0.464 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Gives Ba. Co-evap and Sputter OK.
Beryllium
Be 1,278 - 1.85 - 710 878 1,000 Excellent   Graphite, Fabmate®  W, Ta W W   C  DC Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide
Be2C >2,100 D 1.9 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Beryllium Chloride
BeCl2 405 - 1.9 - - - ~150 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Beryllium Fluoride
BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - - ~200 Good  -  - - -  -  - -
Beryllium Oxide
BeO 2,530 - 3.01 - - - 1,900 Good  -  - - W  -  RF, RF-R No decomposition from E-beam guns.
Bismuth
Bi 271 - 9.8 0.79 330 410 520 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  W, Mo, Ta W W   Al2O3  DC Resistivity high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth Fluoride
BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF -
Bismuth Oxide
Bi2O3 860 - 8.55 **1.00 - - ~1,400 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Bismuth Selenide
Bi2Se3 710 D 6.82 **1.00 - - ~650 Good  -  - - -   Gr, Q  RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide
Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Bismuth Telluride
Bi2Te3 573 - 7.7 **1.00 - - ~600 -  -  W, Mo - -   Gr, Q  RF Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate
Bi2Ti2O7 870 D - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
Boron
B 2,079 - 2.34 0.389 1,278 1,548 1,797 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  C - -   C  RF Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide
B4C 2,350 - 2.52 **1.00 2,500 2,580 2,650 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -  -  RF Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride
BN ~3,000 S 2.25 - - - ~1,600 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Decomposes when sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide
B2O3 ~450 - 1.81 - - - ~1,400 Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  - -
Boron Sulfide
B2S3 310 - 1.55 - - - 800 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF -
Cadmium
Cd 321 - 8.64 0.682 64 120 180 Poor  -  W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta   Al2O3, Q  DC, RF Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide
Cd3Sb2 456 - 6.92 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cadmium Arsenide
Cd3As2 721 - 6.21 - - - - -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Cadmium Bromide
CdBr2 567 - 5.19 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cadmium Chloride
CdCl2 568 - 4.05 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cadmium Fluoride
CdF2 1,100 - 6.64 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Cadmium Iodide
CdI2 387 - 5.67 - - - ~250 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cadmium Oxide
CdO >1,500 D 6.95 - - - ~530 -  -  - - -  -  RF-R Disproportionates.
Cadmium Selenide
CdSe >1,350 S 5.81 **1.00 - - 540 Good   Molybdenum, Tantalum  Mo, Ta - -   Al2O3, Q  RF Evaporates easily.
Cadmium Sulfide
CdS 1,750 S 4.82 1.02 - - 550 Fair  -  W, Mo, Ta - W   Al2O3, Q  RF Sticking coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium Telluride
CdTe 1,092 - 5.85 0.98 - - 450 -  -  W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo  -  RF Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
Calcium
Ca 839 S 1.54 2.62 272 357 459 Poor  -  W W W   Al2O3, Q  - Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride
CaF2 1,423 - 3.18 0.775 - - ~1,100 -  -  W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta   Q  RF Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas.
Calcium Oxide
CaO 2,614 - ~3.3 - - - ~1,700 -  -  W, Mo - -  ZrO2  RF-R Forms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium Silicate
CaSiO3 1,540 - 2.91 - - - - Good  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Calcium Sulfide
CaS 2,525 D 2.5 - - - 1,100 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Calcium Titanate
CaTiO3 1,975 - 4.1 - 1,490 1,600 1,690 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF Disproportionates except in sputtering.
Calcium Tungstate
CaWO4 1,200 - 6.06 - - - - Good  -  W - -  -  RF -
Carbon
C ~3,652 S 1.8–2.1 3.26 1,657 1,867 2,137 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -  -  PDC E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium
Ce 798 - ~6.70 **1.00 970 1,150 1,380 Good  -  W, Ta W W, Ta   Al2O3  DC, RF -
Cerium (III) Oxide
Ce2O3 1,692 - 6.86 - - - - Fair  -  W - -  -  - Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) Oxide
CeO2 ~2,600 - 7.13 **1.00 1,890 2,000 2,310 Good   Tantalum, Graphite, Fabmate®  W - -  -  RF, RF-R Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride
CeF3 1,460 - 6.16 **1.00 - - ~900 Good   Tungsten, Tantalum, Molybdenum  W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas. n~1.7.
Cesium
Cs 28 - 1.88 - -16 22 80 -  -  - - -   Q  - -
Cesium Bromide
CsBr 636 - 3.04 - - - ~400 -  -  W - -  -  RF -
Cesium Chloride
CsCl 645 - 3.99 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -  -  RF -
Cesium Fluoride
CsF 682 - 4.12 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -  -  RF -
Cesium Hydroxide
CsOH 272 - 3.68 - - - 550 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cesium Iodide
CsI 626 - 4.51 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -   Q  RF -
Chiolite
Na5Al3F14 735 - 2.9 - - - ~800 -  -  Mo, W - -  -  RF -
Chromium
Cr 1,857 S 7.2 0.305 837 977 1,157 Good   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten  Cr Plated W Rods W W  VitC  DC Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride
CrB 1,950-2,050 - 6.17 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Chromium (II) Bromide
CrBr2 842 - 4.36 - - - 550 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Chromium Carbide
Cr3C2 1,895 - 6.68 - - - ~2,000 Fair  -  W - -  -  RF -
Chromium Chloride
CrCl2 824 - 2.88 - - - 550 -  -  Fe - -  -  RF -
Chromium Oxide
Cr2O3 2,266 - 5.21 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good  -  W, Mo - W  -  RF, RF-R Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium Silicide
CrSi2 1,490 - 5.5 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide
Cr-SiO - S * - * * * Good  -  W - W  -  RF Flash evaporate.
Cobalt †
Co 1,495 - 8.9 0.343 850 990 1,200 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  W, Nb - W   Al2O3  DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt Bromide
CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - - 400 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Cobalt Chloride
CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - - 472 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Cobalt Oxide
CoO 1,795 - 6.45 0.412 - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC-R, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Copper
Cu 1,083 - 8.92 0.437 727 857 1,017 Excellent   Graphite, Molybdenum  Mo, W W W   Al2O3, Mo, Ta  DC Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride
CuCl 430 - 4.14 - - - ~600 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Copper Oxide
Cu2O 1,235 S 6 **1.00 - - ~600 Good   Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC-R, RF-R -
Copper Sulfide
Cu2S 1,100 - 5.6 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Cryolite
Na3AlF6 1,000 - 2.9 - 1,020 1,260 1,480 Excellent   Fabmate®, Tungsten  W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta  VitC  RF Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium
Dy 1,412 - 8.55 0.6 625 750 900 Good  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -  -  DC -
Dysprosium Fluoride
DyF3 1,360 S - - - - ~800 Good  -  Ta - -  -  RF -
Dysprosium Oxide
Dy2O3 2,340 - 7.81 - - - ~1,400 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Erbium
Er 1,529 S 9.07 0.74 650 775 930 Good   Tungsten, Tantalum  W, Ta - -  -  DC -
Erbium Fluoride
ErF3 1,350 - 7.82 - - - ~750 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide
Er2O3 2,350 - 8.64 **1.00 - - ~1,600 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Europium
Eu 822 S 5.24 **1.00 280 360 480 Fair  -  W, Ta - -   Al2O3  DC Low Ta solubility.
Europium Fluoride
EuF2 1,380 - 6.5 - - - ~950 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF -
Europium Oxide
Eu2O3 2,350 - 7.42 - - - ~1,600 Good  -  Ta, W - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide
EuS - - 5.75 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF -
Gadolinium †
Gd 1,313 - 7.9 0.67 760 900 1,175 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC High Ta solubility
Gadolinium Carbide
GdC2 - - - - - - 1,500 -  -  - - -   C  RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide
Gd2O3 2,330 - 7.41 - - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Gallium
Ga 30 - 5.9 - 619 742 907 Good   Fabmate®  - - -   Al2O3, Q  - Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Gallium Antimonide
GaSb 710 - 5.6 - - - - Fair  -  W, Ta - -  -  RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide
GaAs 1,238 - 5.3 - - - - Good   Graphite, Fabmate®  W, Ta - -   C  RF Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride
GaN 800 S 6.1 - - - ~200 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF, RF-R Evaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2.
Gallium Oxide
Ga2O3 1,900 - 6.44 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF Loses oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide
GaP 1,540 - 4.1 - - 770 920 -  -  W, Ta - W   Q  RF Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium
Ge (N-type) 937 - 5.35 0.516 812 957 1,167 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  W, C, Ta - -   Q, Al2O3  DC (doped), RF Excellent films from E-beam.
Germanium (II) Oxide
GeO 700 S - - - - 500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Germanium (III) Oxide
GeO2 1,086 - 6.24 - - - ~625 Good   Fabmate®, Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - W, Mo   Q, Al2O3  RF-R Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Nitride
Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - - ~650 -  -  - - -  -  RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Germanium Telluride
GeTe 725 - 6.2 - - - 381 -  -  W, Mo - W   Q, Al2O3  RF -
Glass, Schott® 8329
1,300 - 2.2 - - - - Excellent  -  - - -  -  RF Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold
Au 1,064 - 19.32 0.381 807 947 1,132 Excellent   Fabmate®, Molybdenum  W*** Mo*** W - -   Al2O3, BN  DC Films soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium
Hf 2,227 - 13.31 0.36 2,160 2,250 3,090 Good  -  - - -  -  DC -
Hafnium Boride
HfB2 3,250 - 10.5 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC, RF -
Hafnium Carbide
HfC ~3,890 S 12.2 **1.00 - - ~2,600 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Hafnium Nitride
HfN 3,305 - 13.8 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Hafnium Oxide
HfO2 2,758 - 9.68 **1.00 - - ~2,500 Fair  Direct in Hearth  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide
HfSi2 1,750 - 7.2 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Holmium
Ho 1,474 - 8.8 0.58 650 770 950 Good  -  W, Ta W W  -  - -
Holmium Fluoride
HoF3 1,143 - 7.68 - - - ~800 -  -  - - -   Q  DC, RF -
Holmium Oxide
Ho2O3 2,370 - 8.41 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Inconel®
Ni/Cr/Fe 1,425 - 8.5 - - - - Good   Fabmate®, Tungsten  W W W  -  DC Use fine wire wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium
In 157 - 7.3 0.841 487 597 742 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum  W, Mo - W   Gr, Al2O3  DC Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) Oxide
In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - - 650 -  -  - - -  -  RF Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide
In2O3 850 - 7.18 **1.00 - - ~1,200 Good  -  W, Pt - -   Al2O3  - -
Indium (I) Sulfide
In2S 653 - 5.87 - - - 650 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF -
Indium (II) Sulfide
InS 692 S 5.18 - - - 650 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF -
Indium (III) Sulfide
In2S3 1,050 S 4.9 - - - 850 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride
InTe 696 - 6.29 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Indium (III) Telluride
In2Te3 667 - 5.78 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Antimonide
InSb 535 - 5.8 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide
InAs 943 - 5.7 - 780 870 970 -  -  W - -  -  RF -
Indium Nitride
InN 1,200 - 7 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Indium Phosphide
InP 1,070 - 4.8 - - 630 730 -  -  W, Ta - W, Ta   Gr  RF Deposits are P rich.
Indium Selenide
In2Se3 890 - 5.67 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide
In2O3/SnO2 90/10 wt % 1,800 S 7.14 - - - - -   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -  -  RF, DC -
Iridium
Ir 2,410 - 22.42 0.129 1,850 2,080 2,380 Fair  -  - - -  -  DC -
Iron †
Fe 1,535 - 7.86 0.349 858 998 1,180 Excellent  Fabmate®‡  W W W   Al2O3  DC Attacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron (II) Oxide
FeO 1,369 - 5.7 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Decomposes; sputtering preferred.
Iron (III) Oxide
Fe2O3 1,565 - 5.24 **1.00 - - - Good  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R Disproportionate to Fe3O4 at 1,530°C.
Iron Bromide
FeBr2 684 D 4.64 - - - 561 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF -
Iron Chloride
FeCl2 670 S 3.16 - - - 300 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF -
Iron Iodide
FeI2 - - 5.32 - - - 400 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF -
Iron Sulfide
FeS 1,193 D 4.74 - - - - -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF Decomposes
Kanthal
FeCrAl - - 7.1 - - - - -  -  W W W  -  DC -
Lanthanum
La 921 - 6.17 0.92 990 1,212 1,388 Excellent   Tungsten, Tantalum  W, Ta - -   Al2O3  RF Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride
LaB6 2,210 D 4.72 **1.00 - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF -
Lanthanum Bromide
LaBr3 783 - 5.06 - - - - -  -  - - Ta  -  RF Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride
LaF3 1,490 S ~6.0 - - - 900 Good   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - Ta  -  RF No decomposition. n~1.6.
Lanthanum Oxide
La2O3 2,307 - 6.51 **1.00 - - 1,400 Good   Graphite, Fabmate®, Tungsten  W, Ta - -  -  RF Loses oxygen. n~1.73.
Lead
Pb 328 - 11.34 1.13 342 427 497 Excellent   Fabmate®  W, Mo W W, Ta   Al2O3, Q  DC -
Lead Bromide
PbBr2 373 - 6.66 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Lead Chloride
PbCl2 501 - 5.85 - - - ~325 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride
PbF2 855 S 8.24 - - - ~400 -  -  W, Mo - -  BeO  RF -
Lead Iodide
PbI2 402 - 6.16 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  - -
Lead Oxide
PbO 886 - 9.53 - - - ~550 -  -  - - -   Q, Al2O3  RF-R No decomposition. n~2.6.
Lead Selenide
PbSe 1,065 S 8.1 - - - ~500 -  -  W, Mo - W   Gr, Al2O3  RF -
Lead Stannate
PbSnO3 1,115 - 8.1 - 670 780 905 Poor  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide
PbS 1,114 S 7.5 - - - 500 -  -  W - W, Mo   Q, Al2O3  RF Little decomposition.
Lead Telluride
PbTe 917 - 8.16 0.651 780 910 1,050 -  -  Mo, Pt, Ta - -   Al2O3, Gr  RF Deposits are Ta rich. Sputtering preferred.
Lead Titanate
PbTiO3 - - 7.52 1.16 - - - -  -  Ta - -  -  RF -
Lithium
Li 181 - 0.53 5.9 227 307 407 Good   Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  - Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide
LiBr 550 - 3.46 - - - ~500 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF -
Lithium Chloride
LiCl 605 - 2.07 - - - 400 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Fluoride
LiF 845 - 2.64 0.778 875 1,020 1,180 Good   Tantalum, Tungsten, Molybdenum  Ni, Ta, Mo, W - -   Al2O3  RF Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Iodide
LiI 449 - 4.08 - - - 400 -  -  Mo, W - -  -  RF -
Lithium Niobate
LiNbO3 - - - 0.463 - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Lithium Oxide
Li2O >1,700 - 2.01 - - - 850 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Lutetium
Lu 1,663 - 9.84 - - - 1,300 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -   Al2O3  RF, DC -
Lutetium Oxide
Lu2O3 - - 9.42 - - - 1,400 -  -  - - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Magnesium
Mg 649 S 1.74 1.61 185 247 327 Good   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten  W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W   Al2O3  DC Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate
MgAl2O4 2,135 - 3.6 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF Natural spinel.
Magnesium Bromide
MgBr2 700 - 3.72 - - - ~450 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride
MgCl2 714 - 2.32 - - - 400 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Magnesium Fluoride
MgF2 1,261 - 2.9–3.2 0.637 - - 1,000 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite, Molybdenum  Mo, Ta - -   Al2O3  RF Substrate temp and rate control important. Reacts with W. Mo OK.
Magnesium Iodide
MgI2 <637 D 4.43 - - - 200 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Magnesium Oxide
MgO 2,852 - 3.58 0.411 - - 1,300 Good   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -   C, Al2O3  RF, RF-R Evaporates in 10-3 Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
Manganese
Mn 1,244 S 7.2 0.377 507 572 647 Good   Tungsten  W, Ta, Mo W W   Al2O3  DC -
Manganese (II) Oxide
MnO 1945 - 5.37 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Manganese (III) Oxide
Mn2O3 1,080 - 4.5 0.467 - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Manganese (IV) Oxide
MnO2 535 - 5.03 - - - - Poor  -  W - W  -  RF-R Loses oxygen at 535°C.
Manganese Bromide
MnBr2 - D 4.39 - - - 500 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Manganese Chloride
MnCl2 650 - 2.98 - - - 450 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Manganese Sulfide
MnS - D 3.99 - - - 1,300 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Mercury
Hg -39 - 13.55 - -68 -42 -6 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Mercury Sulfide
HgS 584 S 8.1 - - - 250 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF Decomposes.
Molybdenum
Mo 2,617 - 10.2 0.257 1,592 1,822 2,117 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -  -  DC Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride
MoB2 2,100 - 7.12 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF -
Molybdenum Carbide
Mo2C 2,687 - 8.9 **1.00 - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Sulfide
MoS2 1,185 - 4.8 **1.00 - - ~50 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Molybdenum Oxide
MoO3 795 S 4.69 **1.00 - - ~900 -  -  Mo - Mo   Al2O3, BN  RF Slight oxygen loss.
Molybdenum Silicide
MoSi2 2,050 - 6.31 **1.00 - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Neodymium
Nd 1,021 - 7.01 **1.00 731 871 1,062 Excellent   Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC Low W solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride
NdF3 1,410 - 6.5 - - - ~900 Good   Tungsten, Molybdenum  Mo, W - Mo, Ta   Al2O3  RF Very little decomposition.
Neodymium Oxide
Nd2O3 ~1,900 - 7.24 - - - ~1,400 Good   Tantalum, Tungsten  Ta, W - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred.
Nichrome IV®
Ni/Cr 1,395 - 8.5 **1.00 847 987 1,217 Excellent   Fabmate®  *** W W, Ta   Al2O3  DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Nickel †
Ni 1,453 - 8.91 0.331 927 1,072 1,262 Excellent  Fabmate®‡  W*** - -   Al2O3  DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide
NiBr2 963 S 5.1 - - - 362 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Nickel Chloride
NiCl2 1,001 S 3.55 - - - 444 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Nickel/Iron †
Ni/Fe - - 8.7 **1.00 - - - -  Fabmate®‡  - - -  -  - -
Nickel Oxide
NiO 1,984 - 6.67 **1.00 - - ~1,470 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF-R Dissociates on heating.
Nimendium †
Ni3%Mn 1,425 - 8.8 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC -
Niobium
Nb 2,468 - 8.57 0.492 1,728 1,977 2,287 Excellent   Fabmate®  - - -  -  DC Attacks W source.
Niobium (II) Oxide
NbO - - 7.3 - - - 1,100 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Niobium (III) Oxide
Nb2O3 1,780 - 7.5 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R -
Niobium (V) Oxide
Nb2O5 1,485 - 4.6 **1.00 - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R -
Niobium Boride
NbB2 2,900 - 6.97 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Niobium Carbide
NbC 3,500 - 7.6 **1.00 - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF -
Niobium Nitride
NbN 2,573 - 8.4 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Reactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2.
Niobium Telluride
NbTe2 - - 7.6 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin
Nb3Sn - - - - - - - Excellent  -  - - -  -  DC Co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Osmium
Os 3,045 - 22.48 - 2,170 2,430 2,760 Fair  -  - - -  -  DC -
Osmium Oxide
Os2O3 - D - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - Deposits Os in 10-3 Torr O2.
Palladium
Pd 1,554 S 12.02 0.357 842 992 1,192 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten  W*** W W   Al2O3  DC Alloys with refractory metals.
Palladium Oxide
PdO 870 - 9.7 - - - 575 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF-R Decomposes.
Parylene
C8H8 300–400 - 1.1 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy®
Ni/Fe/Mo/Mn 1,395 - 8.7 **1.00 947 1,047 1,307 Good  Fabmate®‡  W - -   Al2O3  DC Film low in Ni.
Phosphorus
P 44.1 - 1.82 - 327 361 402 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  - Material reacts violently in air.
Phosphorus Nitride
P3N5 - - 2.51 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Platinum
Pt 1,772 - 21.45 0.245 1,292 1,492 1,747 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -   C  DC Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion. Temperatures required to achieve deposition may not be practical for thermal evaporation.
Platinum Oxide
PtO2 450 - 10.2 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF-R E-beam preferred for evaporation.
Plutonium
Pu 641 - 19.84 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  - -
Polonium
Po 254 - 9.4 - 117 170 244 -  -  - - -   Q  - -
Potassium
K 63 - 0.86 - 23 60 125 -  -  Mo - -   Q  - Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide
KBr 734 - 2.75 - - - ~450 -  -  Ta, Mo - -   Q  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Chloride
KCl 770 S 1.98 - - - 510 Good   Tantalum  Ta, Ni - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Fluoride
KF 858 - 2.48 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Hydroxide
KOH 360 - 2.04 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -  -  - Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide
KI 681 - 3.13 - - - ~500 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Praseodymium
Pr 931 - 6.77 **1.00 800 950 1,150 Good  -  Ta - -  -  DC -
Praseodymium Oxide
Pr2O3 - D 7.07 - - - 1,400 Good  -  - - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
PTFE
PTFE 330 - 2.9 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Radium
Ra 700 - 5.5 - 246 320 416 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Rhenium
Re 3,180 - 21.02 0.15 1,928 2,207 2,571 Poor  -  - - -  -  DC -
Rhenium Oxide
ReO3 - D ~7 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Evaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2.
Rhodium
Rh 1,966 - 12.41 0.21 1,277 1,472 1,707 Good   Fabmate®, Tungsten  W W W  ThO2,VitC  DC E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium
Rb 39 - 1.48 - -3 37 111 -  -  - - -   Q  - -
Rubidium Chloride
RbCl 718 - 2.09 - - - ~550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Rubidium Iodide
RbI 647 - 3.55 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Ruthenium
Ru 2,310 - 12.3 0.182 1,780 1,990 2,260 Poor  -  - - -  -  DC -
Samarium
Sm 1,074 - 7.52 0.89 373 460 573 Good  -  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC -
Samarium Oxide
Sm2O3 2,350 - 8.35 - - - - Good  -  - - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide
Sm2S3 1,900 - 5.73 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  - -
Scandium
Sc 1,541 - 2.99 0.91 714 837 1,002 Excellent   Tungsten, Molybdenum  W - -   Al2O3  RF Alloys with Ta.
Scandium Oxide
Sc2O3 2,300 - 3.86 - - - ~400 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Selenium
Se 217 - 4.81 0.864 89 125 170 Good   Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum  W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo   Al2O3  - Bad for vacuum systems. High V.P. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Silicon
Si 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  Fabmate®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  RF Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced.
Silicon (II) Oxide
SiO >1,702 S 2.13 0.87 - - 850 Fair   Fabmate®, Tungsten, Tantalum  Ta W W   Ta  RF, RF-R For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate.
Silicon (IV) Oxide
SiO2 1,610 - ~2.65 **1.00 * * 1,025* Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tantalum  - - -   Al2O3  RF Quartz excellent in E-beam.
Silicon (N-type)
Si (N-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  Fabmate®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  DC, RF -
Silicon (P-type)
Si (P-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  Fabmate®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  DC, RF -
Silicon Boride
SiB6 - - - - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF -
Silicon Carbide
SiC ~2,700 S, D 3.22 **1.00 - - 1,000 -  -  - - -  -  RF Sputtering preferred.
Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 1,900 - 3.44 **1.00 - - ~800 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Silicon Selenide
SiSe - - - - - - 550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Silicon Sulfide
SiS 940 S 1.85 - - - 450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Silicon Telluride
SiTe2 - - 4.39 - - - 550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Silver
Ag 962 - 10.5 0.529 847 958 1,105 Excellent   Fabmate®, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tantalum  W Mo Ta, Mo   Al2O3,W  DC -
Silver Bromide
AgBr 432 D 6.47 - - - ~380 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF -
Silver Chloride
AgCl 455 - 5.56 - - - ~520 -  -  Mo - Mo   Q  RF -
Silver Iodide
AgI 558 - 6.01 - - - ~500 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF -
Sodium
Na 98 - 0.97 - 74 124 192 -  -  Ta - -   Q  - Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.
Sodium Bromide
NaBr 747 - 3.2 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -   Q  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Chloride
NaCl 801 - 2.17 - - - 530 Good  -  Ta, W, Mo - -   Q  RF Copper oven; little decomposition. Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Cyanide
NaCN 564 - - - - - ~550 -  -  - - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Fluoride
NaF 993 - 2.56 - - - ~1,000 Good   Tungsten, Fabmate®  Mo, Ta, W - -  BeO  RF Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition.
Sodium Hydroxide
NaOH 318 - 2.13 - - - ~470 -  -  - - -  -  - Preheat gently to outgas.
Spinel
MgAI2O4 - - 8 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF -
Strontium
Sr 769 - 2.6 **1.00 239 309 403 Poor  -  W, Ta, Mo W W  VitC  RF Wets but does not alloy with W/Ta/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride
SrCl2 875 - 3.05 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Strontium Fluoride
SrF2 1,473 - 4.24 - - - ~1,000 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF -
Strontium Oxide
SrO 2,430 S 4.7 - - - 1,500 -  -  Mo - -   Al2O3  RF Reacts with W/Mo.
Strontium Sulfide
SrS >2,000 - 3.7 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Strontium Titanate
SrTiO3 - - 4.81 0.31 - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Sulfur
S 113 - 2.07 - 13 19 57 Poor  -  W - W   Q  - Bad for vacuum systems.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Supermalloy®
Ni/Fe/Mo 1,410 - 8.9 - - - - Good  Fabmate®‡  - - -  -  DC Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo.
Tantalum
Ta 3,017 - 16.6 0.262 1,960 2,240 2,590 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite  - - -  -  DC Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride
TaB2 3,000(?) - 11.15 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tantalum Carbide
TaC 3,880 - 13.9 **1.00 - - ~2,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tantalum Nitride
TaN 3,360 - 16.3 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2.
Tantalum Pentoxide
Ta2O5 1,872 - 8.2 0.3 1,550 1,780 1,920 Good   Fabmate®, Tantalum  Ta W W  VitC  RF, RF-R Slight decomposition. Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr O2.
Tantalum Sulfide
TaS2 >1,300 - - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Technetium
Tc 2,200 - 11.5 - 1,570 1,800 2,090 -  -  - - -  -  - -
Tellurium
Te 449 - 6.25 0.9 157 207 277 Poor   Fabmate®  W, Ta W W, Ta   Al2O3, Q  RF Wets without alloying.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Terbium
Tb 1,356 - 8.27 0.66 800 950 1,150 Excellent   Graphite, Fabmate®, Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  RF -
Terbium Fluoride
TbF3 1,172 - - - - - ~800 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Terbium Oxide
Tb2O3 2,387 - 7.87 - - - 1,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide
Tb4O7 - D - - - - - -  -  Ta - -  -  RF Films TbO.
Thallium
Tl 304 - 11.85 - 280 360 470 Poor   Fabmate®  W, Ta - W   Al2O3, Q  DC Wets freely.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Thallium Bromide
TlBr 480 S 7.56 - - - ~250 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF -
Thallium Chloride
TlCl 430 S 7 - - - ~150 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF -
Thallium Iodide
TlI 440 S 7.1 - - - ~250 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Thallium Oxide
Tl2O2 717 - 10.19 - - - 350 -  -  - - -  -  RF Disproportionates at 850°C to Tl2O.
Thorium
Th 1,750 - 11.7 - 1,430 1,660 1,925 Excellent   Molybdenum, Tantalum, Tungsten  W, Ta, Mo W W  -  - -
Thorium Bromide
ThBr4 610 S 5.67 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  - -
Thorium Carbide
ThC2 2,655 - 8.96 - - - ~2,300 -  -  - - -   C  RF -
Thorium Fluoride
ThF4 >900 - 6.32 - - - ~750 Fair  -  Mo - W  VitC  RF -
Thorium Oxide
ThO2 3,220 - 9.86 - - - ~2,100 Good   Tungsten  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Thorium Oxyfluoride
ThOF2 900 - 9.1 - - - - -  -  Mo, Ta - -  -  - -
Thorium Sulfide
ThS2 1,925 - 7.3 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Thulium
Tm 1,545 S 9.32 - 461 554 680 Good  -  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC -
Thulium Oxide
Tm2O3 - - 8.9 - - - 1,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Tin
Sn 232 - 7.28 0.724 682 807 997 Excellent   Fabmate®, Tantalum  Mo W W   Al2O3  DC Wets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Tin Oxide
SnO2 1,630 S 6.95 **1.00 - - ~1,000 Excellent  -  W W W   Q, Al2O3  RF, RF-R Films from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air.
Tin Selenide
SnSe 861 - 6.18 - - - ~400 Good  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Tin Sulfide
SnS 882 - 5.22 - - - ~450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Tin Telluride
SnTe 780 D 6.48 - - - ~450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Titanium
Ti 1,660 - 4.5 0.628 1,067 1,235 1,453 Excellent   Fabmate®,Intermetallic​  W - -  TiC, TiB2-BN  DC Alloys with W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium (II) Oxide
TiO 1,750 - 4.95 **1.00 - - ~1,500 Good   Fabmate®, Tantalum  W, Mo - -  VitC  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Titanium (III) Oxide
Ti2O3 2,130 D 4.6 - - - - Good   Fabmate®, Tantalum  W - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide
TiO2 1,830 - 4.23 0.4 - - ~1,300 Fair   Fabmate®, Tantalum  W, Mo - W  -  RF, RF-R Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti.
Titanium Boride
TiB2 2,900 - 4.5 **1.00 - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF -
Titanium Carbide
TiC 3,140 - 4.93 **1.00 - - ~2,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Titanium Nitride
TiN 2,930 - 5.4 **1.00 - - - Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Tungsten
W 3,410 - 19.25 0.163 2,117 2,407 2,757 Good  Direct in Hearth  - - -  -  DC Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride
WB2 ~2,900 - 10.77 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tungsten Carbide
WC 2,860 - 15.63 0.151 1,480 1,720 2,120 Excellent   Graphite, Fabmate®  C - -  -  RF -
Tungsten Disulfide
WS2 1,250 D 7.5 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tungsten Oxide
WO3 1,473 S 7.16 **1.00 - - 980 Good   Tungsten  W - -  -  RF-R Preheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly.
Tungsten Selenide
WSe2 - - 9 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tungsten Silicide
WSi2 >900 - 9.4 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Tungsten Telluride
WTe2 - - 9.49 - - - - -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Uranium
U 1,132 - 19.05 - 1,132 1,327 1,582 Good  -  Mo, W W W  -  - Films oxidize.
Uranium (II) Sulfide
US >2,000 - 10.87 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  - -
Uranium (III) Oxide
U2O3 1,300 D 8.3 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF-R Disproportionates at 1,300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide
UO2 2,878 - 10.96 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF Ta causes decomposition.
Uranium (IV) Sulfide
US2 >1,100 - 7.96 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF Slight decomposition.
Uranium Carbide
UC2 2,350 - 11.28 - - - 2,100 -  -  - - -   C  RF Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride
UF4 960 - 6.7 - - - 300 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF -
Uranium Phosphide
UP2 - - 8.57 - - - 1,200 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Vanadium
V 1,890 - 5.96 0.53 1,162 1,332 1,547 Excellent   Tungsten  W, Mo - -  -  DC Wets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium (IV) Oxide
VO2 1,967 S 4.34 - - - ~575 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide
V2O5 690 D 3.36 **1.00 - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF -
Vanadium Boride
VB2 2,400 - 5.1 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Vanadium Carbide
VC 2,810 - 5.77 **1.00 - - ~1,800 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Vanadium Nitride
VN 2,320 - 6.13 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R -
Vanadium Silicide
VSi2 1,700 - 4.42 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Ytterbium
Yb 819 S 6.98 1.13 520 590 690 Good   Tantalum  Ta - -  -  - -
Ytterbium Fluoride
YbF3 1,157 - 8.2 - - - ~800 -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF -
Ytterbium Oxide
Yb2O3 2,346 S 9.17 **1.00 - - ~1,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen.
Yttrium
Y 1,522 - 4.47 0.835 830 973 1,157 Excellent   Tungsten  W, Ta W W   Al2O3  RF, DC High Ta solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide
Y3Al5O12 1,990 - - - - - - Good  -  - W W  -  RF Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride
YF3 1,387 - 4.01 - - - - -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  - - -  -  RF -
Yttrium Oxide
Y2O3 2,410 - 5.01 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten  W - -   C  RF, RF-R Loses oxygen; films smooth and clear.
Zinc
Zn 420 - 7.14 0.514 127 177 250 Excellent   Fabmate®, Graphite, Tungsten  Mo, W, Ta W W   Al2O3, Q  DC Evaporates well under wide range of conditions.
Zinc Antimonide
Zn3Sb2 570 - 6.33 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Zinc Bromide
ZnBr2 394 - 4.2 - - - ~300 -  -  W - -   C  RF Decomposes.
Zinc Fluoride
ZnF2 872 - 4.95 - - - ~800 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF -
Zinc Nitride
Zn3N2 - - 6.22 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  RF Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide
ZnO 1,975 - 5.61 0.556 - - ~1,800 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF-R -
Zinc Selenide
ZnSe >1,100 - 5.42 0.722 - - 660 -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo   Q  RF Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well.
Zinc Sulfide
ZnS 1,700 S 3.98 0.775 - - ~800 Good   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n=2.356.
Zinc Telluride
ZnTe 1,239 - 6.34 0.77 - - ~600 -  -  Mo, Ta - -  -  RF Preheat gently to outgas.
Zirconium
Zr 1,852 - 6.49 0.6 1,477 1,702 1,987 Excellent  -  W - -  -  DC Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride
ZrB2 ~3,200 - 6.09 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF -
Zirconium Carbide
ZrC 3,540 - 6.73 0.264 - - ~2,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Zirconium Nitride
ZrN 2,980 - 7.09 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Reactively evaporate in 10-3 Torr N2.
Zirconium Oxide
ZrO2 ~2,700 - 5.89 **1.00 - - ~2,200 Good   Graphite, Tungsten  W - -  -  RF, RF-R Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard.
Zirconium Silicate
ZrSiO4 2,550 - 4.56 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -
Zirconium Silicide
ZrSi2 1,700 - 4.88 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF -

Z-Factors

Empirical Determination of Z-Factor

Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:

  • Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
  • Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
  • Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
  • Zero thickness
  • Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
  • Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
  • Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.

Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.