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Material Deposition Chart




Key of Symbols

✝ Magnetic material (requires special sputter source)

‡ One run only

* Influenced by composition

** The z-ratio is unknown. Therefore, we recommend using 1.00 or an experimentally
determined value. Please click here for instructions on how to determine this value.

*** All metals alumina coated

C = carbon

Gr = graphite

Q = quartz

Incl = Inconel®

VitC = vitreous carbon

SS = stainless steel

Ex = excellent

G = good

F = fair

P = poor

S = sublimes

D = decomposes

PDC = Pulsed DC sputtering

RF = RF sputtering is effective

RF-R = reactive RF sputter is effective

DC = DC sputtering is effective

DC-R = reactive DC sputtering is effective


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Initial letter of the deposition material.

A   B   C   D   E   G   H   I   K   L   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V   Y   Z   ▲Back to Top
Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation Sputter Comments
10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible
Material Symbol MP
(°C)
S/D g/cm3 Z Ratio 10-8 10-6 10-4 E-Beam
Performance
Liner
Material
Boat Coil Basket Crucible Sputter Comments
Temp.(°C) for Given
Vap. Press. (Torr)
E-Beam Evaporation Thermal Evaporation
Aluminum
Al 660 - 2.7 1.08 677 821 1,010 Excellent   FABMATE®, Intermetallic  - - W   TiB2-BN, BN  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys W/Mo/Ta. Flash evap or use BN crucible.
Aluminum Antimonide
AlSb 1,080 - 4.3 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Aluminum Arsenide
AlAs 1,600 - 3.7 - - - ~1,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Aluminum Bromide
AlBr3 97 - 2.64 - - - ~50 -  -  Mo - -   Gr  -

-
Aluminum Carbide
Al4C3 ~1,400 D 2.36 - - - ~800 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Aluminum Fluoride
AlF3 1,291 S 2.36 - 410 490 700 Poor   Graphite, FABMATE®  Mo, W, Ta - -   Gr  RF

-
Aluminum Nitride
AlN >2,200 S 3.26 **1.00 - - ~1,750 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF-R

Decomposes. Reactive evap in 10-3 T N2 with glow discharge.
Aluminum Oxide
Al2O3 2,072 - 3.97 0.336 - - 1,550 Excellent   FABMATE®, Tungsten  - - -  -  RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Sapphire excellent in E-beam; forms smooth, hard films.  Thermal evaporation likely not possible.
Aluminum Phosphide
AlP 2,000 - 2.42 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Aluminum, 1% Copper
Al/Cu 99/1 wt% 640 - 2.82 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC

Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Aluminum, 1% Silicon
Al/Si 99/1 wt % 640 - 2.69 **1.00 - - 1,010 -  -  - - -   TiB2-BN  RF, DC

Wire feed & flash. Difficult from dual sources.
Antimony
Sb 630 S 6.68 0.768 279 345 425 Poor  -  Mo*** Ta*** Mo, Ta Mo, Ta   BN, C, Al2O3  RF, DC

Evaporates well.
Antimony Oxide
Sb2O3 656 S 5.2 - - - ~300 Good  -  - - -   BN, Al2O3  RF-R

Decomposes on W.
Antimony Selenide
Sb2Se3 611 - - - - - - -  -  Ta - -   C  RF

Stoichiometry variable.
Antimony Sulfide
Sb2S3 550 - 4.64 - - - ~200 Good   Molybdenum, Tantalum  Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta   Al2O3  -

No decomposition.
Antimony Telluride
Sb2Te3 629 - 6.5 **1.00 - - 600 -  -  - - -   C  RF

Decomposes over 750°C.
Arsenic
As 817 S 5.73 - 107 150 210 Poor   FABMATE®  C - -   Al2O3  -

Sublimes rapidly at low temp.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Arsenic Oxide
As2O3 312 - 3.74 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Arsenic Selenide
As2Se3 ~360 - 4.75 - - - - -  -  - - -   Al2O3, Q  RF

-
Arsenic Sulfide
As2S3 300 - 3.43 - - - ~400 Fair  -  Mo - -   Al2O3, Q  RF

-
Arsenic Telluride
As2Te3 362 - 6.5 - - - - -  -  Flash - -  -  -

See JVST. 1973, 10:748
Barium
Ba 725 - 3.51 2.1 545 627 735 Fair  -  W, Ta, Mo W W  Metals  RF

Wets without alloying, reacts with ceramics.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Barium Chloride
BaCl2 963 - 3.92 - - - ~650 -  -  Ta, Mo - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Barium Fluoride
BaF2 1,355 S 4.89 0.793 - - ~700 Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF

-
Barium Oxide
BaO 1,918 - 5.72 - - - ~1,300 Poor  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF, RF-R

Decomposes slightly.
Barium Sulfide
BaS 1,200 - 4.25 - - - 1,100 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

-
Barium Titanate
BaTiO3 1,625 D 6.02 0.464 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Gives Ba. Co-evap and Sputter OK.
Beryllium
Be 1,278 - 1.85 - 710 878 1,000 Excellent   Graphite, FABMATE®  W, Ta W W   C  DC

Wets W/Mo/Ta. Evaporates easily
Beryllium Carbide
Be2C >2,100 D 1.9 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Beryllium Chloride
BeCl2 405 - 1.9 - - - ~150 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Beryllium Fluoride
BeF2 800 S 1.99 - - - ~200 Good  -  - - -  -  -

-
Beryllium Oxide
BeO 2,530 - 3.01 - - - 1,900 Good  -  - - W  -  RF, RF-R

No decomposition from E-beam guns.
Bismuth
Bi 271 - 9.8 0.79 330 410 520 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  W, Mo, Ta W W   Al2O3  DC

Resistivity high. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Bismuth Fluoride
BiF3 727 S 5.32 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF

-
Bismuth Oxide
Bi2O3 860 - 8.55 **1.00 - - ~1,400 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Bismuth Selenide
Bi2Se3 710 D 7.5-7.7 **1.00 - - ~650 Good  -  - - -   Gr, Q  RF

Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Sulfide
Bi2S3 685 D 7.39 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Bismuth Telluride
Bi2Te3 573 - 7.7 **1.00 - - ~600 -  -  W, Mo - -   Gr, Q  RF

Co-evap from 2 sources or sputter.
Bismuth Titanate
Bi2Ti2O7 870 D - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Sputter or co-evap from 2 sources in 10-2 Torr O2.
Boron
B 2,079 - 2.34 0.389 1,278 1,548 1,797 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  C - -   C  RF

Explodes with rapid cooling. Forms carbide with container.
Boron Carbide
B4C 2,350 - 2.52 **1.00 2,500 2,580 2,650 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -  -  RF

Similar to chromium.
Boron Nitride
BN ~3,000 S 2.25 - - - ~1,600 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Decomposes when sputtered. Reactive preferred.
Boron Oxide
B2O3 ~450 - 1.81 - - - ~1,400 Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  -

-
Boron Sulfide
B2S3 310 - 1.55 - - - 800 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF

-
Cadmium
Cd 321 - 8.64 0.682 64 120 180 Poor  -  W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta   Al2O3, Q  DC, RF

Bad for vacuum systems. Low sticking coefficient.
Cadmium Antimonide
Cd3Sb2 456 - 6.92 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cadmium Arsenide
Cd3As2 721 - 6.21 - - - - -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Cadmium Bromide
CdBr2 567 - 5.19 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cadmium Chloride
CdCl2 568 - 4.05 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cadmium Fluoride
CdF2 1,100 - 6.64 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Cadmium Iodide
CdI2 387 - 5.67 - - - ~250 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cadmium Oxide
CdO >1,500 D 6.95 - - - ~530 -  -  - - -  -  RF-R

Disproportionates.
Cadmium Selenide
CdSe >1,350 S 5.81 **1.00 - - 540 Good   Molybdenum, Tantalum  Mo, Ta - -   Al2O3, Q  RF

Evaporates easily.
Cadmium Sulfide
CdS 1,750 S 4.82 1.02 - - 550 Fair  -  W, Mo, Ta - W   Al2O3, Q  RF

Sticking coefficient affected by substrate.
Cadmium Telluride
CdTe 1,092 - 5.85 0.98 - - 450 -  -  W, Mo, Ta W W, Ta, Mo  -  RF

Stoichiometry depends on substrate temp. n~2.6.
Calcium
Ca 839 S 1.54 2.62 272 357 459 Poor  -  W W W   Al2O3, Q  RF, DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Corrodes in air.
Calcium Fluoride
CaF2 1,423 - 3.18 0.775 - - ~1,100 -  -  W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta W, Mo, Ta   Q  RF

Rate control important. Preheat gently to outgas.
Calcium Oxide
CaO 2,614 - ~3.3 - - - ~1,700 -  -  W, Mo - -  ZrO2  RF-R

Forms volatile oxides with W/Mo.
Calcium Silicate
CaSiO3 1,540 - 2.91 - - - - Good  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Calcium Sulfide
CaS 2,525 D 2.5 - - - 1,100 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Calcium Titanate
CaTiO3 1,975 - 4.1 - 1,490 1,600 1,690 Poor  -  - - -  -  RF

Disproportionates except in sputtering.
Calcium Tungstate
CaWO4 1,200 - 6.06 - - - - Good  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Carbon
C ~3,652 S 2.25 3.26 1,657 1,867 2,137 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -  -  PDC

E-beam preferred. Arc evaporation. Poor film adhesion.
Cerium
Ce 798 - ~6.70 **1.00 970 1,150 1,380 Good  -  W, Ta W W, Ta   Al2O3  DC, RF

-
Cerium (III) Oxide
Ce2O3 1,692 - 6.86 - - - - Fair  -  W - -  -  -

Alloys with source. Use 0.015"–0.020" W boat.
Cerium (IV) Oxide
CeO2 ~2,600 - 7.13 **1.00 1,890 2,000 2,310 Good   Tantalum, Graphite, FABMATE®  W - -  -  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Very little decomposition.
Cerium Fluoride
CeF3 1,460 - 6.16 **1.00 - - ~900 Good   Tungsten, Tantalum, Molybdenum  W, Mo, Ta - Mo, Ta  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas. n~1.7.
Cesium
Cs 28 - 1.88 - -16 22 80 -  -  - - -   Q  -

-
Cesium Bromide
CsBr 636 - 3.04 - - - ~400 -  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Cesium Chloride
CsCl 645 - 3.99 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Cesium Fluoride
CsF 682 - 4.12 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Cesium Hydroxide
CsOH 272 - 3.68 - - - 550 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cesium Iodide
CsI 626 - 4.51 - - - ~500 -  -  W - -   Q  RF

-
Chiolite
Na5Al3F14 735 - 2.9 - - - ~800 -  -  Mo, W - -  -  RF

-
Chromium
Cr 1,857 S 7.2 0.305 837 977 1,157 Good   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tungsten  Cr Plated W Rods W W  VitC  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Films very adherent. High rates possible.
Chromium Boride
CrB 1,950-2,050 - 6.17 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Chromium (II) Bromide
CrBr2 842 - 4.36 - - - 550 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Chromium Carbide
Cr3C2 1,895 - 6.68 - - - ~2,000 Fair  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Chromium Chloride
CrCl2 824 - 2.88 - - - 550 -  -  Fe - -  -  RF

-
Chromium Oxide
Cr2O3 2,266 - 5.21 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good  -  W, Mo - W  -  RF, RF-R

Disproportionates to lower oxides; reoxidizes at 600°C in air.
Chromium Silicide
CrSi2 1,490 - 5.5 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Chromium-Silicon Monoxide
Cr-SiO - S * - * * * Good  -  W - W  -  RF

Flash evaporate.
Cobalt †
Co 1,495 - 8.9 0.343 850 990 1,200 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  W, Nb - W   Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Cobalt Bromide
CoBr2 678 D 4.91 - - - 400 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Cobalt Chloride
CoCl2 724 D 3.36 - - - 472 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Cobalt Oxide
CoO 1,795 - 6.45 0.412 - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC-R, RF-R

Sputtering preferred.
Copper
Cu 1,083 - 8.92 0.437 727 857 1,017 Excellent   Graphite, Molybdenum  Mo, W W W   Al2O3, Mo, Ta  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Adhesion poor. Use interlayer (Cr). Evaporates using any source material.
Copper Chloride
CuCl 430 - 4.14 - - - ~600 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Copper Oxide
Cu2O 1,235 S 6 **1.00 - - ~600 Good   Graphite, FABMATE®, Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC-R, RF-R

-
Copper Sulfide
Cu2S 1,100 - 5.6 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Cryolite
Na3AlF6 1,000 - 2.9 - 1,020 1,260 1,480 Excellent   FABMATE®, Tungsten  W, Mo, Ta - W, Mo, Ta  VitC  RF

Large chunks reduce spitting. Little decomposition.
Dysprosium
Dy 1,412 - 8.55 0.6 625 750 900 Good  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -  -  DC

-
Dysprosium Fluoride
DyF3 1,360 S - - - - ~800 Good  -  Ta - -  -  RF

-
Dysprosium Oxide
Dy2O3 2,340 - 7.81 - - - ~1,400 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
Erbium
Er 1,529 S 9.07 0.74 650 775 930 Good   Tungsten, Tantalum  W, Ta - -  -  DC

-
Erbium Fluoride
ErF3 1,350 - 7.82 - - - ~750 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

See JVST. 1985; A3(6):2320.
Erbium Oxide
Er2O3 2,350 - 8.64 **1.00 - - ~1,600 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
Europium
Eu 822 S 5.24 **1.00 280 360 480 Fair  -  W, Ta - -   Al2O3  DC

Low Ta solubility.
Europium Fluoride
EuF2 1,380 - 6.5 - - - ~950 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

-
Europium Oxide
Eu2O3 2,350 - 7.42 - - - ~1,600 Good  -  Ta, W - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen. Films clear and hard.
Europium Sulfide
EuS - - 5.75 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Gadolinium †
Gd 1,313 - 7.9 0.67 760 900 1,175 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC

High Ta solubility
Gadolinium Carbide
GdC2 - - - - - - 1,500 -  -  - - -   C  RF

Decomposes under sputtering.
Gadolinium Oxide
Gd2O3 2,330 - 7.41 - - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
Gallium
Ga 30 - 5.9 - 619 742 907 Good   FABMATE®  - - -   Al2O3, Q  -

Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Use E-beam gun. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Gallium Antimonide
GaSb 710 - 5.6 - - - - Fair  -  W, Ta - -  -  RF

Flash evaporate.
Gallium Arsenide
GaAs 1,238 - 5.3 - - - - Good   Graphite, FABMATE®  W, Ta - -   C  RF

Flash evaporate.
Gallium Nitride
GaN 800 S 6.1 - - - ~200 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF, RF-R

Evaporate Ga in 10-3 Torr N2.
Gallium Oxide
Ga2O3 1,900 - 6.44 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF

Loses oxygen.
Gallium Phosphide
GaP 1,540 - 4.1 - - 770 920 -  -  W, Ta - W   Q  RF

Does not decompose. Rate control important.
Germanium
Ge (N-type) 937 - 5.32 0.516 812 957 1,167 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  W, C, Ta - -   Q, Al2O3  DC (doped), RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Excellent films from E-beam.
Germanium (II) Oxide
GeO 700 S - - - - 500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Germanium (III) Oxide
GeO2 1,086 - 6.24 - - - ~625 Good   FABMATE®, Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - W, Mo   Q, Al2O3  RF-R

Similar to SiO; film predominantly GeO.
Germanium Nitride
Ge3N2 450 S 5.2 - - - ~650 -  -  - - -  -  RF-R

Sputtering preferred.
Germanium Telluride
GeTe 725 - 6.2 - - - 381 -  -  W, Mo - W   Q, Al2O3  RF

-
Glass, Schott® 8329
1,300 - 2.2 - - - - Excellent  -  - - -  -  RF

Evaporable alkali glass. Melt in air before evaporating.
Gold
Au 1,064 - 19.32 0.381 807 947 1,132 Excellent   FABMATE®, Molybdenum  W*** Mo*** W - -   Al2O3, BN  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Films soft; not very adherent.
Hafnium
Hf 2,227 - 13.31 0.36 2,160 2,250 3,090 Good  -  - - -  -  DC

-
Hafnium Boride
HfB2 3,250 - 10.5 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC, RF

-
Hafnium Carbide
HfC ~3,890 S 12.2 **1.00 - - ~2,600 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Hafnium Nitride
HfN 3,305 - 13.8 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Hafnium Oxide
HfO2 2,758 - 9.68 **1.00 - - ~2,500 Fair  Direct in Hearth  - - -  -  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Film HfO.
Hafnium Silicide
HfSi2 1,750 - 7.2 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Holmium
Ho 1,474 - 8.8 0.58 650 770 950 Good  -  W, Ta W W  -  -

-
Holmium Fluoride
HoF3 1,143 - 7.68 - - - ~800 -  -  - - -   Q  DC, RF

-
Holmium Oxide
Ho2O3 2,370 - 8.41 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
Inconel®
Ni/Cr/Fe 1,425 - 8.5 - - - - Good   FABMATE®, Tungsten  W W W  -  DC

Use fine wire wrapped on W. Low rate required for smooth films.
Indium
In 157 - 7.3 0.841 487 597 742 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite, Molybdenum  W, Mo - W   Gr, Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Wets W and Cu. Use Mo liner. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Indium (I) Oxide
In2O ~600 S 6.99 - - - 650 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Decomposes under sputtering.
Indium (III) Oxide
In2O3 850 - 7.18 **1.00 - - ~1,200 Good  -  W, Pt - -   Al2O3  -

-
Indium (I) Sulfide
In2S 653 - 5.87 - - - 650 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF

-
Indium (II) Sulfide
InS 692 S 5.18 - - - 650 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF

-
Indium (III) Sulfide
In2S3 1,050 S 4.9 - - - 850 -  -  - - -   Gr  RF

Film In2S.
Indium (II) Telluride
InTe 696 - 6.29 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Indium (III) Telluride
In2Te3 667 - 5.78 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Antimonide
InSb 535 - 5.8 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF

Decomposes. Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate.
Indium Arsenide
InAs 943 - 5.7 - 780 870 970 -  -  W - -  -  RF

-
Indium Nitride
InN 1,200 - 7 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Indium Phosphide
InP 1,070 - 4.8 - - 630 730 -  -  W, Ta - W, Ta   Gr  RF

Deposits are P rich.
Indium Selenide
In2Se3 890 - 5.67 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources; flash.
Indium Tin Oxide
In2O3/SnO2 90/10 wt % 1,800 S 7.14 - - - - -   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -  -  RF, DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Iridium
Ir 2,410 - 22.42 0.129 1,850 2,080 2,380 Fair  -  - - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Iron †
Fe 1,535 - 7.86 0.349 858 998 1,180 Excellent  FABMATE®‡  W W W   Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Attacks W. Films hard, smooth. Preheat gently to outgas.
Iron (II) Oxide
FeO 1,369 - 5.7 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Decomposes; sputtering preferred.
Iron (III) Oxide
Fe2O3 1,565 - 5.24 **1.00 - - - Good  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R

Disproportionate to Fe3O4 at 1,530°C.
Iron Bromide
FeBr2 684 D 4.64 - - - 561 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF

-
Iron Chloride
FeCl2 670 S 3.16 - - - 300 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF

-
Iron Iodide
FeI2 - - 5.32 - - - 400 -  -  - - -  Fe  RF

-
Iron Sulfide
FeS 1,193 D 4.74 - - - - -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF

Decomposes
Kanthal
FeCrAl - - 7.1 - - - - -  -  W W W  -  DC

-
Lanthanum
La 921 - 6.17 0.92 990 1,212 1,388 Excellent   Tungsten, Tantalum  W, Ta - -   Al2O3  RF

Films will burn in air if scraped.
Lanthanum Boride
LaB6 2,210 D 4.72 **1.00 - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Lanthanum Bromide
LaBr3 783 - 5.06 - - - - -  -  - - Ta  -  RF

Hygroscopic.
Lanthanum Fluoride
LaF3 1,490 S ~6.0 - - - 900 Good   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - Ta  -  RF

No decomposition. n~1.6.
Lanthanum Oxide
La2O3 2,307 - 6.51 **1.00 - - 1,400 Good   Graphite, FABMATE®, Tungsten  W, Ta - -  -  RF

Loses oxygen. n~1.73.
Lead
Pb 328 - 11.34 1.13 342 427 497 Excellent   FABMATE®  W, Mo W W, Ta   Al2O3, Q  DC

-
Lead Bromide
PbBr2 373 - 6.66 - - - ~300 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Lead Chloride
PbCl2 501 - 5.85 - - - ~325 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF

Little decomposition.
Lead Fluoride
PbF2 855 S 8.24 - - - ~400 -  -  W, Mo - -  BeO  RF

-
Lead Iodide
PbI2 402 - 6.16 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  -

-
Lead Oxide
PbO 886 - 9.53 - - - ~550 -  -  - - -   Q, Al2O3  RF-R

No decomposition. n~2.6.
Lead Selenide
PbSe 1,065 S 8.1 - - - ~500 -  -  W, Mo - W   Gr, Al2O3  RF

-
Lead Stannate
PbSnO3 1,115 - 8.1 - 670 780 905 Poor  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF

Disproportionates.
Lead Sulfide
PbS 1,114 S 7.5 - - - 500 -  -  W - W, Mo   Q, Al2O3  RF

Little decomposition.
Lead Telluride
PbTe 917 - 8.16 0.651 780 910 1,050 -  -  Mo, Pt, Ta - -   Al2O3, Gr  RF

Deposits are Ta rich. Sputtering preferred.
Lead Titanate
PbTiO3 - - 7.52 1.16 - - - -  -  Ta - -  -  RF

-
Lithium
Li 181 - 0.53 5.9 227 307 407 Good   Tantalum  Ta - -   BN  - Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Metal reacts quickly in air.
Lithium Bromide
LiBr 550 - 3.46 - - - ~500 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF

-
Lithium Chloride
LiCl 605 - 2.07 - - - 400 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Fluoride
LiF 845 - 2.64 0.778 875 1,020 1,180 Good   Tantalum, Tungsten, Molybdenum  Ni, Ta, Mo, W - -   Al2O3  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Rate control important for optical films. Preheat gently to outgas.
Lithium Iodide
LiI 449 - 4.08 - - - 400 -  -  Mo, W - -  -  RF

-
Lithium Niobate
LiNbO3 - - 4.7 0.463 - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Lithium Oxide
Li2O >1,700 - 2.01 - - - 850 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Lutetium
Lu 1,663 - 9.84 - - - 1,300 Excellent  Direct in Hearth  Ta - -   Al2O3  RF, DC

-
Lutetium Oxide
Lu2O3 - - 9.42 - - - 1,400 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Magnesium
Mg 649 S 1.74 1.61 185 247 327 Good   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tungsten  W, Mo, Ta, Cb W W   Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Extremely high rates possible.
Magnesium Aluminate
MgAl2O4 2,135 - 3.6 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF

Natural spinel.
Magnesium Bromide
MgBr2 700 - 3.72 - - - ~450 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Magnesium Chloride
MgCl2 714 - 2.32 - - - 400 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Magnesium Fluoride
MgF2 1,261 - 3.15 0.637 - - 1,000 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite, Molybdenum  Mo, Ta - -   Al2O3  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Substrate temp and rate control important. Reacts with W. Mo OK.
Magnesium Iodide
MgI2 <637 D 4.43 - - - 200 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Magnesium Oxide
MgO 2,852 - 3.58 0.411 - - 1,300 Good   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -   C, Al2O3  RF, RF-R

Evaporates in 10-3 Torr O2 for stoichiometry.
Manganese
Mn 1,244 S 7.2 0.377 507 572 647 Good   Tungsten  W, Ta, Mo W W   Al2O3  DC

-
Manganese (II) Oxide
MnO 1945 - 5.37 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Manganese (III) Oxide
Mn2O3 1,080 - 4.5 0.467 - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Manganese (IV) Oxide
MnO2 535 - 5.03 - - - - Poor  -  W - W  -  RF-R

Loses oxygen at 535°C.
Manganese Bromide
MnBr2 - D 4.39 - - - 500 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Manganese Chloride
MnCl2 650 - 2.98 - - - 450 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Manganese Sulfide
MnS - D 3.99 - - - 1,300 -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Mercury
Hg -39 - 13.55 - -68 -42 -6 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Mercury Sulfide
HgS 584 S 8.1 - - - 250 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF

Decomposes.
Molybdenum
Mo 2,617 - 10.2 0.257 1,592 1,822 2,117 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Films smooth, hard. Careful degas required.
Molybdenum Boride
MoB2 2,100 - 7.12 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Molybdenum Carbide
Mo2C 2,687 - 8.9 **1.00 - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF

Evaporation of Mo(CO)6 yields Mo2C.
Molybdenum Sulfide
MoS2 1,185 - 4.8 **1.00 - - ~50 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Molybdenum Oxide
MoO3 795 S 4.69 **1.00 - - ~900 -  -  Mo - Mo   Al2O3, BN  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Slight oxygen loss.
Molybdenum Silicide
MoSi2 2,050 - 6.31 **1.00 - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Neodymium
Nd 1,021 - 7.01 **1.00 731 871 1,062 Excellent   Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC

Low W solubility.
Neodymium Fluoride
NdF3 1,410 - 6.5 - - - ~900 Good   Tungsten, Molybdenum  Mo, W - Mo, Ta   Al2O3  RF

Very little decomposition.
Neodymium Oxide
Nd2O3 ~1,900 - 7.24 - - - ~1,400 Good   Tantalum, Tungsten  Ta, W - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen; films clear. E-beam preferred.
Nichrome IV®
Ni/Cr 1,395 - 8.5 **1.00 847 987 1,217 Excellent   FABMATE®  *** W W, Ta   Al2O3  DC

Alloys with W/Ta/Mo.
Nickel †
Ni 1,453 - 8.91 0.331 927 1,072 1,262 Excellent  FABMATE®‡,Copper  W*** - -   Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with W/Ta/Mo. Smooth adherent films.
Nickel Bromide
NiBr2 963 S 5.1 - - - 362 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Nickel Chloride
NiCl2 1,001 S 3.55 - - - 444 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Nickel/Iron †
Ni/Fe - - 8.7 **1.00 - - - -  FABMATE®‡  - - -  -  -

-
Nickel Oxide
NiO 1,984 - 6.67 **1.00 - - ~1,470 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF-R

Dissociates on heating.
Nimendium †
Ni3%Mn 1,425 - 8.8 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  DC

-
Niobium
Nb 2,468 - 8.57 0.492 1,728 1,977 2,287 Excellent   FABMATE®  - - -  -  DC

Attacks W source.
Niobium (II) Oxide
NbO - - 7.3 - - - 1,100 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Niobium (III) Oxide
Nb2O3 1,780 - 7.5 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R

-
Niobium (V) Oxide
Nb2O5 1,485 - 4.6 **1.00 - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF, RF-R

-
Niobium Boride
NbB2 2,900 - 6.97 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Niobium Carbide
NbC 3,500 - 7.6 **1.00 - - - Fair  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Niobium Nitride
NbN 2,573 - 8.4 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Reactive. Evaporates Nb in 10-3 Torr N2.
Niobium Telluride
NbTe2 - - 7.6 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Composition variable.
Niobium-Tin
Nb3Sn - - - - - - - Excellent  -  - - -  -  DC

Co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Osmium
Os 3,045 - 22.48 - 2,170 2,430 2,760 Fair  -  - - -  -  DC

-
Osmium Oxide
Os2O3 - D - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

Deposits Os in 10-3 Torr O2.
Palladium
Pd 1,554 S 12.02 0.357 842 992 1,192 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tungsten  W*** W W   Al2O3  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with refractory metals.
Palladium Oxide
PdO 870 - 9.7 - - - 575 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF-R

Decomposes.
Parylene
C8H8 300–400 - 1.1 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

Vapor-depositable plastic.
Permalloy®
Ni/Fe/Mo/Mn 1,395 - 8.7 **1.00 947 1,047 1,307 Good  FABMATE®‡  W - -   Al2O3  DC

Film low in Ni.
Phosphorus
P 44.1 - 1.82 - 327 361 402 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  -

Material reacts violently in air.
Phosphorus Nitride
P3N5 - - 2.51 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Platinum
Pt 1,772 - 21.45 0.245 1,292 1,492 1,747 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -   C  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with metals. Films soft, poor adhesion. Temperatures required to achieve deposition may not be practical for thermal evaporation.
Platinum Oxide
PtO2 450 - 10.2 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF-R

E-beam preferred for evaporation.
Plutonium
Pu 641 - 19.84 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  -

-
Polonium
Po 254 - 9.4 - 117 170 244 -  -  - - -   Q  -

-
Potassium
K 63 - 0.86 - 23 60 125 -  -  Mo - -   Q  -

Metal reacts rapidly in air. Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Bromide
KBr 734 - 2.75 - - - ~450 -  -  Ta, Mo - -   Q  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Chloride
KCl 770 S 1.98 - - - 510 Good   Tantalum  Ta, Ni - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Fluoride
KF 858 - 2.48 - - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Hydroxide
KOH 360 - 2.04 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -  -  -

Preheat gently to outgas.
Potassium Iodide
KI 681 - 3.13 - - - ~500 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Praseodymium
Pr 931 - 6.77 **1.00 800 950 1,150 Good  -  Ta - -  -  DC

-
Praseodymium Oxide
Pr2O3 - D 7.07 - - - 1,400 Good  -  - - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
PTFE
PTFE 330 - 2.9 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF

Baffled source. Film structure doubtful.
Radium
Ra 700 - 5.5 - 246 320 416 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Rhenium
Re 3,180 - 21.02 0.15 1,928 2,207 2,571 Poor  -  - - -  -  DC

-
Rhenium Oxide
ReO3 - D ~7 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Evaporate Re in 10-3 Torr O2.
Rhodium
Rh 1,966 - 12.41 0.21 1,277 1,472 1,707 Good   FABMATE®, Tungsten  W W W  ThO2,VitC  DC

E-beam gun preferred.
Rubidium
Rb 39 - 1.48 - -3 37 111 -  -  - - -   Q  -

-
Rubidium Chloride
RbCl 718 - 2.09 - - - ~550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Rubidium Iodide
RbI 647 - 3.55 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Ruthenium
Ru 2,310 - 12.3 0.182 1,780 1,990 2,260 Poor  -  - - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Samarium
Sm 1,074 - 7.52 0.89 373 460 573 Good  -  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC

-
Samarium Oxide
Sm2O3 2,350 - 8.35 - - - - Good  -  - - -  ThO2  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen. Films smooth, clear.
Samarium Sulfide
Sm2S3 1,900 - 5.73 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  -

-
Scandium
Sc 1,541 - 2.99 0.91 714 837 1,002 Excellent   Tungsten, Molybdenum  W - -   Al2O3  RF

Alloys with Ta.
Scandium Oxide
Sc2O3 2,300 - 3.86 - - - ~400 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Selenium
Se 217 - 4.81 0.864 89 125 170 Good   FABMATE®, Tungsten, Molybdenum  W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo   Al2O3  -

Bad for vacuum systems. High V.P. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Silicon
Si 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  FABMATE®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  RF

Alloys with W; use heavy W boat. SiO produced.
Silicon (II) Oxide
SiO >1,702 S 2.13 0.87 - - 850 Fair   FABMATE®, Tungsten, Tantalum  Ta W W   Ta  RF, RF-R

For resistance evaporation, use baffle box and low rate.
Silicon (IV) Oxide
SiO2 1,610 - ~2.65 **1.00 * * 1,025* Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tantalum  - - -   Al2O3  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Quartz excellent in E-beam.
Silicon (N-type)
Si (N-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  FABMATE®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  DC, RF

-
Silicon (P-type)
Si (P-type) 1,410 - 2.32 0.712 992 1,147 1,337 Fair  FABMATE®‡, Tantalum  - - -  -  DC, RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Silicon Boride
SiB6 - - - - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Silicon Carbide
SiC ~2,700 S, D 3.22 **1.00 - - 1,000 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Sputtering preferred.
Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 1,900 - 3.44 **1.00 - - ~800 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Silicon Selenide
SiSe - - - - - - 550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Silicon Sulfide
SiS 940 S 1.85 - - - 450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Silicon Telluride
SiTe2 - - 4.39 - - - 550 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Silver
Ag 962 - 10.5 0.529 847 958 1,105 Excellent   FABMATE®, Tungsten, Molybdenum, Tantalum  W Mo Ta, Mo   Al2O3,W  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Silver Bromide
AgBr 432 D 6.47 - - - ~380 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF

-
Silver Chloride
AgCl 455 - 5.56 - - - ~520 -  -  Mo - Mo   Q  RF

-
Silver Iodide
AgI 558 - 6.01 - - - ~500 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF

-
Sodium
Na 98 - 0.97 - 74 124 192 -  -  Ta - -   Q  -

Preheat gently to outgas. Metal reacts quickly in air.
Sodium Bromide
NaBr 747 - 3.2 - - - ~400 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Chloride
NaCl 801 - 2.17 - - - 530 Good  -  Ta, W, Mo - -   Q  RF

Copper oven; little decomposition. Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Cyanide
NaCN 564 - - - - - ~550 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Sodium Fluoride
NaF 993 - 2.56 - - - ~1,000 Good   Tungsten, FABMATE®  Mo, Ta, W - -  BeO  RF

Preheat gently to outgas. No decomposition.
Sodium Hydroxide
NaOH 318 - 2.13 - - - ~470 -  -  - - -  -  -

Preheat gently to outgas.
Spinel
MgAI2O4 - - 8 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Strontium
Sr 769 - 2.6 **1.00 239 309 403 Poor  -  W, Ta, Mo W W  VitC  RF

Wets but does not alloy with W/Ta/Mo. May react in air.
Strontium Chloride
SrCl2 875 - 3.05 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Strontium Fluoride
SrF2 1,473 - 4.24 - - - ~1,000 -  -  - - -   Al2O3  RF

-
Strontium Oxide
SrO 2,430 S 4.7 - - - 1,500 -  -  Mo - -   Al2O3  RF

Reacts with W/Mo.
Strontium Sulfide
SrS >2,000 - 3.7 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Strontium Titanate
SrTiO3 - - 4.81 0.31 - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Sulfur
S 113 - 2.07 - 13 19 57 Poor  -  W - W   Q  -

Bad for vacuum systems.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Supermalloy®
Ni/Fe/Mo 1,410 - 8.9 - - - - Good  FABMATE®‡  - - -  -  DC

Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources-Ni/Fe and Mo.
Tantalum
Ta 3,017 - 16.6 0.262 1,960 2,240 2,590 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite  - - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Forms good films.
Tantalum Boride
TaB2 3,000(?) - 11.15 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tantalum Carbide
TaC 3,880 - 13.9 **1.00 - - ~2,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tantalum Nitride
TaN 3,360 - 16.3 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr N2.
Tantalum Pentoxide
Ta2O5 1,872 - 8.2 0.3 1,550 1,780 1,920 Good   FABMATE®, Tantalum  Ta W W  VitC  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Slight decomposition. Evaporate Ta in 10-3 Torr O2.
Tantalum Sulfide
TaS2 >1,300 - - - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Technetium
Tc 2,200 - 11.5 - 1,570 1,800 2,090 -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Tellurium
Te 449 - 6.25 0.9 157 207 277 Poor   FABMATE®  W, Ta W W, Ta   Al2O3, Q  RF

Wets without alloying.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Terbium
Tb 1,356 - 8.27 0.66 800 950 1,150 Excellent   Graphite, FABMATE®, Tantalum  Ta - -   Al2O3  RF

-
Terbium Fluoride
TbF3 1,172 - - - - - ~800 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Terbium Oxide
Tb2O3 2,387 - 7.87 - - - 1,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Partially decomposes.
Terbium Peroxide
Tb4O7 - D - - - - - -  -  Ta - -  -  RF

Films TbO.
Thallium
Tl 304 - 11.85 - 280 360 470 Poor   FABMATE®  W, Ta - W   Al2O3, Q  DC

Wets freely.  Not recommended for sputtering.
Thallium Bromide
TlBr 480 S 7.56 - - - ~250 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF

-
Thallium Chloride
TlCl 430 S 7 - - - ~150 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF

-
Thallium Iodide
TlI 440 S 7.1 - - - ~250 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Thallium Oxide
Tl2O2 717 - 10.19 - - - 350 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Disproportionates at 850°C to Tl2O.
Thorium
Th 1,750 - 11.7 - 1,430 1,660 1,925 Excellent   Molybdenum, Tantalum, Tungsten  W, Ta, Mo W W  -  -

-
Thorium Bromide
ThBr4 610 S 5.67 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  -

-
Thorium Carbide
ThC2 2,655 - 8.96 - - - ~2,300 -  -  - - -   C  RF

-
Thorium Fluoride
ThF4 >900 - 6.32 - - - ~750 Fair  -  Mo - W  VitC  RF

-
Thorium Oxide
ThO2 3,220 - 9.86 - - - ~2,100 Good   Tungsten  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Thorium Oxyfluoride
ThOF2 900 - 9.1 - - - - -  -  Mo, Ta - -  -  -

-
Thorium Sulfide
ThS2 1,925 - 7.3 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

Sputtering preferred; or co-evaporate from 2 sources.
Thulium
Tm 1,545 S 9.32 - 461 554 680 Good  -  Ta - -   Al2O3  DC

-
Thulium Oxide
Tm2O3 - - 8.9 - - - 1,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Tin
Sn 232 - 7.28 0.724 682 807 997 Excellent   FABMATE®, Tantalum  Mo W W   Al2O3  DC

Wets Mo low sputter power. Use Ta liner in E-beam guns. Low Melting Point materials not ideal for sputtering.
Tin Oxide
SnO2 1,630 S 6.95 **1.00 - - ~1,000 Excellent  -  W W W   Q, Al2O3  RF, RF-R

Films from W are oxygen deficient; oxidize in air.
Tin Selenide
SnSe 861 - 6.18 - - - ~400 Good  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Tin Sulfide
SnS 882 - 5.22 - - - ~450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Tin Telluride
SnTe 780 D 6.48 - - - ~450 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Titanium
Ti 1,660 - 4.5 0.628 1,067 1,235 1,453 Excellent   FABMATE®,Intermetallic​  W - -  TiC, TiB2-BN  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with W/Ta/Mo; evolves gas on first heating.
Titanium (II) Oxide
TiO 1,750 - 4.95 **1.00 - - ~1,500 Good   FABMATE®, Tantalum  W, Mo - -  VitC  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Titanium (III) Oxide
Ti2O3 2,130 D 4.6 - - - - Good   FABMATE®, Tantalum  W - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Titanium (IV) Oxide
TiO2 1,830 - 4.23 0.4 - - ~1,300 Fair   FABMATE®, Tantalum  W, Mo - W  -  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Suboxide, must be reoxidized to rutile. Ta reduces TiO2 to TiO and Ti.
Titanium Boride
TiB2 2,900 - 4.5 **1.00 - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Titanium Carbide
TiC 3,140 - 4.93 **1.00 - - ~2,300 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Titanium Nitride
TiN 2,930 - 5.4 **1.00 - - - Good   Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF, RF-R

Sputtering preferred. Decomposes with thermal evaporation.
Tungsten
W 3,410 - 19.25 0.163 2,117 2,407 2,757 Good  Direct in Hearth  - - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Forms volatile oxides. Films hard and adherent.
Tungsten Boride
WB2 ~2,900 - 10.77 - - - - Poor  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tungsten Carbide
WC 2,860 - 15.63 0.151 1,480 1,720 2,120 Excellent   Graphite, FABMATE®  C - -  -  RF

-
Tungsten Disulfide
WS2 1,250 D 7.5 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tungsten Oxide
WO3 1,473 S 7.16 **1.00 - - 980 Good   Tungsten  W - -  -  RF-R

Preheat gently to outgas. W reduces oxide slightly.
Tungsten Selenide
WSe2 - - 9 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tungsten Silicide
WSi2 >900 - 9.4 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Tungsten Telluride
WTe2 - - 9.49 - - - - -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Uranium
U 1,132 - 19.05 - 1,132 1,327 1,582 Good  -  Mo, W W W  -  -

Films oxidize.
Uranium (II) Sulfide
US >2,000 - 10.87 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  -

-
Uranium (III) Oxide
U2O3 1,300 D 8.3 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF-R

Disproportionates at 1,300°C to UO2.
Uranium (IV) Oxide
UO2 2,878 - 10.96 - - - - -  -  W - W  -  RF

Ta causes decomposition.
Uranium (IV) Sulfide
US2 >1,100 - 7.96 - - - - -  -  W - -  -  RF

Slight decomposition.
Uranium Carbide
UC2 2,350 - 11.28 - - - 2,100 -  -  - - -   C  RF

Decomposes.
Uranium Fluoride
UF4 960 - 6.7 - - - 300 -  -  Ni - -  -  RF

-
Uranium Phosphide
UP2 - - 8.57 - - - 1,200 -  -  Ta - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Vanadium
V 1,890 - 6.11 0.53 1,162 1,332 1,547 Excellent   Tungsten  W, Mo - -  -  DC

Wets Mo. E-beam-evaporated films preferred.
Vanadium (IV) Oxide
VO2 1,967 S 4.34 - - - ~575 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Sputtering preferred.
Vanadium (V) Oxide
V2O5 690 D 3.36 **1.00 - - ~500 -  -  - - -   Q  RF

-
Vanadium Boride
VB2 2,400 - 5.1 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Vanadium Carbide
VC 2,810 - 5.77 **1.00 - - ~1,800 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Vanadium Nitride
VN 2,320 - 6.13 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

-
Vanadium Silicide
VSi2 1,700 - 4.42 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Ytterbium
Yb 819 S 6.98 1.13 520 590 690 Good   Tantalum  Ta - -  -  -

-
Ytterbium Fluoride
YbF3 1,157 - 8.2 - - - ~800 -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Mo - -  -  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Ytterbium Oxide
Yb2O3 2,346 S 9.17 **1.00 - - ~1,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Loses oxygen.
Yttrium
Y 1,522 - 4.47 0.835 830 973 1,157 Excellent   Tungsten  W, Ta W W   Al2O3  RF, DC

High Ta solubility.
Yttrium Aluminum Oxide
Y3Al5O12 1,990 - - - - - - Good  -  - W W  -  RF

Films not ferroelectric.
Yttrium Fluoride
YF3 1,387 - 4.01 - - - - -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  - - -  -  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

-
Yttrium Oxide
Y2O3 2,410 - 5.01 **1.00 - - ~2,000 Good   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tungsten  W - -   C  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Loses oxygen; films smooth and clear.
Zinc
Zn 420 - 7.14 0.514 127 177 250 Excellent   FABMATE®, Graphite, Tungsten  Mo, W, Ta W W   Al2O3, Q  DC

Evaporates well under wide range of conditions.
Zinc Antimonide
Zn3Sb2 570 - 6.33 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Zinc Bromide
ZnBr2 394 - 4.2 - - - ~300 -  -  W - -   C  RF

Decomposes.
Zinc Fluoride
ZnF2 872 - 4.95 - - - ~800 -  -  Ta - -   Q  RF

-
Zinc Nitride
Zn3N2 - - 6.22 - - - - -  -  Mo - -  -  RF

Decomposes.
Zinc Oxide
ZnO 1,975 - 5.61 0.556 - - ~1,800 Fair  -  - - -  -  RF-R

-
Zinc Selenide
ZnSe >1,100 - 5.42 0.722 - - 660 -   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, W, Mo W, Mo W, Mo   Q  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Preheat gently to outgas. Evaporates well.
Zinc Sulfide
ZnS 1,700 S 3.98 0.775 - - ~800 Good   Tantalum, Molybdenum  Ta, Mo - -  -  RF Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Preheat gently to outgas. Films partially decompose. n=2.356.
Zinc Telluride
ZnTe 1,239 - 6.34 0.77 - - ~600 -  -  Mo, Ta - -  -  RF

Preheat gently to outgas.
Zirconium
Zr 1,852 - 6.49 0.6 1,477 1,702 1,987 Excellent  -  W - -  -  DC Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Alloys with W. Films oxidize readily.
Zirconium Boride
ZrB2 ~3,200 - 6.09 - - - - Good  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Zirconium Carbide
ZrC 3,540 - 6.73 0.264 - - ~2,500 -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Zirconium Nitride
ZrN 2,980 - 7.09 **1.00 - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF, RF-R

Reactively evaporate in 10-3 Torr N2.
Zirconium Oxide
ZrO2 ~2,700 - 5.89 **1.00 - - ~2,200 Good   Graphite, Tungsten  W - -  -  RF, RF-R Evaporation NotesClick here for full Evaporation Process Notes on this material.

Films oxygen deficient, clear and hard.
Zirconium Silicate
ZrSiO4 2,550 - 4.56 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-
Zirconium Silicide
ZrSi2 1,700 - 4.88 - - - - -  -  - - -  -  RF

-

Z-Factors

Empirical Determination of Z-Factor

Unfortunately, Z Factor and Shear Modulus are not readily available for many materials. In this case, the Z-Factor can also be determined empirically using the following method:

  • Deposit material until Crystal Life is near 50%, or near the end of life, whichever is sooner.
  • Place a new substrate adjacent to the used quartz sensor.
  • Set QCM Density to the calibrated value; Tooling to 100%
  • Zero thickness
  • Deposit approximately 1000 to 5000 A of material on the substrate.
  • Use a profilometer or interferometer to measure the actual substrate film thickness.
  • Adjust the Z Factor of the instrument until the correct thickness reading is shown.

Another alternative is to change crystals frequently and ignore the error. The graph below shows the % Error in Rate/Thickness from using the wrong Z Factor. For a crystal with 90% life, the error is negligible for even large errors in the programmed versus actual Z Factor.